Articles on Berlin
and publications on other subjects that discuss him


~ Wisdom, John, ‘Other Minds (I.)’, Mind 49 no. 196 (October 1940), 369–402; takes as its starting point a (lost) paper on other minds read by IB to the Moral Sciences Club in Cambridge on 12 June 1940 (see 369, 373)


~ anon., entry in ‘The Great Faces of Oxford’, Vogue (New York), 1 July 1950, 68–73; entry on IB on 70, photo of IB by Norman Parkinson on 71

[Carr, E. H.], ‘The New Scepticism’ (leading article), The Times Literary Supplement, 9 June 1950, 357 (on IB’s ‘Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century’)

~ Robert Kee, ‘Eternal Oxford’, Picture Post, 25 November 1950, 13–21; no text reference, but a photo of IB by John Chillingworth on 21, with caption ‘Philosopher: Isaiah Berlin, New College, one of the best talkers in Oxford’


Brown, Robert, and Watling, John, ‘Hypothetical Statements in Phenomenalism’, Synthèse 8 (1949–51), 355–66; discusses IB’s ‘Empirical Propositions and Hypothetical Statements’, Mind 59 (1950), 289–312

~ Kennan, George F., ‘Lectures on Foreign Policy’, Illinois Law Review 45 (1951), 718–42

~ Pears, D., ‘The Logical Status of Supposition’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supplementary vol. 25 (1951), 83–98; touches on the IB paper discussed by Brown and Watling (1951)

~ Spender, Stephen, World Within World (London, 1951: Faber)

Warnock, G. J., ‘Empirical Propositions and Hypothetical Statements’, Mind 25 (1951); repr. in G. J. Warnock, Morality and Language (Oxford, 1983: Blackwell), 11–15


~ Bowra, C. M., Heroic Poetry (London, 1952: Macmillan); dedicated to IB

Raab, Francis V., ‘History, Freedom, and Responsibility’, Philosophy of Science 26 (1952), 123–32

[Utley. T. E.], ‘The Fate of Liberty’, The Times, 6 December 1952, 7; letters, 9 (‘True Religion or Fanaticism’: Émile Cammaerts, James I. McKie), 10 (‘Assertion of the Rule of Law’: John Bowle, G. E. Fasnacht), 12 (Edgar W. Jones), 17 (W. Harvey Moore) and 18 (Edgar W. Jones) December


~ [Carr, E. H.,] ‘Sociology’ (leading article), The Times Literary Supplement, 9 January 1953, 25

S[traight], M[ichael], ‘To Our Readers’, New Republic, 24 August 1953, 23 (on IB and Anna Akhmatova)

~ Weitz, Morris, ‘Oxford Philosophy’, Philosophical Review 62 no. 2 (April 1953), 187–233, esp. pp. 189, 207–11: a good survey article on Oxford Philosophy, including IB; one of the few examples of someone finding similarities between IB’s philosophical method and ideas and those of some of his contemporaries in Oxford


Koestler, Arthur, ‘Judah at the Crossroads’ (1954), in id., The Trail of the Dinosaur and other essays (London, 1955): comments on IB’s essay ‘Jewish Slavery and Emancipation’

~ Toynbee, Philip, Friends Apart (London, 1954: MacGibbon and Kee; repr. London, 1980: Sidgwick and Jackson), 75–80


Schneiderman, Harry, and Carmin, Itzhak J. (eds), Who’s Who in World Jewry: A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews (New York, 1955: Who’s Who in World Jewry/Monde), ‘Berlin, Isaiah’

Geyl, Peter, Debates with Historians (Gröningen/The Hague/London, 1955: Wolters/Nijhoff/Batsford) [devotes a chapter to IB]


Lasky, Melvin, ‘The “Sovietologists”: When is a Change not a Change?’ in Encounter 24 (September 1957), pp. 64–8 (esp. 67)

Mackinnon, D. M., A Study in Ethical Theory (London, 1957: Adam & Charles Black), esp. pp. 124–5, 207–17 (and see index s.v. IB)

Literary cocktail party: New World Writing no. 11 (May 1957), i

Anthony West, ‘The Hedgehog and the Fox: An Essay on Isaiah Berlin’s Analysis of Tolstoy’s View of History’, New World Writing no. 11 (May 1957), 264–71; IB responded to the drawing: ‘thank you for all those foxes – what have I started? [Denis] Brogan said in print that I was a modern Aesop’ (to Victor Weybright, 3 May 1957)


~ [Utley, T. E.] ‘Public Morals’ (leading article), The Times Literary Supplement, 24 January 1958, 45


anon., ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin’ (‘Silhouette’ feature), Jewish Chronicle, 5 June 1959, 11

~ anon, entry in ‘Cambridge or Oxford?’, The Queen, 9 June 1959, 43–51; IB at 48–9

Passmore, John, ‘History, the Individual, and Inevitability’, Philosophical Review 68 (January 1959), 93–102

Sen, Amartyar Kumar, ‘Determinism and Historical Predictions’, Enquiry (Delhi) 2 (1959), 99–115

Ungoed-Thomas, Jasper, ‘An Oxford Manifesto’, New Statesman, 10 October 1959, 463–4; letters by IB, 511, 582

Watson, Peter, ‘Brains of Britain “The Big-League Tables” ’, Encounter, October 1981, 93


~ Bobbio, Norberto, ‘Kant e le due libertà’ (1960), in id., Teoria generale della politica, ed. Michelangelo Bovero (Turin, 1999: Einaudi), 40–53

Cohen, M., ‘Berlin and the Liberal Tradition’, Philosophical Quarterly 10 (1960), 216–27

Nagel, E., ‘Determinism in History’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20 (1959–60), 291–317, at 311–16

[Woodhouse, C.M.,] ‘Tolstoy and Enlightenment’, The Times Literary Supplement, 25 November 1960, 759; discusses IB’s lecture with the same title


~ Carr, E. H., What is History? (London, 1961: Macmillan); see also Listener, 1 June 1961, 973–4

~ [Deutscher, Isaac,], ‘Between Past and Future’, The Times Literary Supplement, 17 November 1961, 813–14

~ Leff, Gordon, The Tyranny of Concepts: A Critique of Marxism (London, 1961), 146–9

~ Nagel, E., The Structure of Science: Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation (London, 1961: Routledge and Kegan Paul), 599–605

David Spitz, ‘The Nature and Limits of Freedom’, Dissent 8 (1961–2) no. 1 (Winter 1961), 78–85, at 79–82

Strauss, Leo, ‘ “Relativism” ’, in Helmut Schoeck and James W. Wiggins (eds), Relativism and the Study of Man (Princeton, 1961), 135–57; repr. in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism, ed. T. L. Pangle (Chicago and London, 1989: University of Chicago Press)

[Utley, T. E.,] ‘The Wood and the Trees’, The Times Literary Supplement, 10 March 1961, 153 ; discusses IB’s lecture on J. S. Mill


~ Gomme, A. W., More Essays on Greek History and Literature (Oxford, 1962: Blackwell), 154–5, 171–3

Kaufman, A. S., ‘Professor Berlin on “Negative Freedom” ’, Mind 71 (1962), 241–3

~ Nicholls, David, ‘Positive Liberty, 1880–1914’, American Political Science Review 56 (1962), 114–28, at 114 note 8


El′sberg, Ya. E., ‘Ideinaya bor′ba vokrug naslediya Gertsena b nashe vremya’ [The ideological battle over Herzen’s legacy to our age], in Yu. G. Oksman (ed.), Problemy izucheniya Gertsena [Problems in the study of Herzen] (Moscow, 1963: Izdatel′stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR): El′sberg attacks (437–45) IB’s treatment of Herzen in his 1956 introduction to Herzen’s From the Other Shore , defending the orthodox Soviet view of Herzen, which takes its cue from Lenin’s pronouncements on the subject. This defence is bound up with the Cold War polemics about the opposing political systems under which El′sberg and Berlin were writing. El′sberg welcomes the appearance of an English translation of From the Other Shore but is critical both of Berlin’s interpretation of the work and of Berlin’s relative lack of attention to other things that Herzen wrote. El′sberg believes that Martin Malia has made much the more important contribution to scholarship on Herzen. IB wrote to HH about El′sberg’s attack on 25 October 1993:

[El′sberg] was a secretary to Kamenev, an original Bolshevik revolutionary who was duly executed by Stalin. Naturally this made the secretary’s position difficult. He was sent to Siberia and had to work his passage back. He had been a member of the Academy, was undoubtedly a well-read and clever man, but as he had betrayed so many people to the secret police during the 1930s they didn’t want to re-admit him; in fact they expelled him. Under pressure from Khrushchev they did readmit him. He made a violent attack on me, for obvious reasons, if only to show his utter loyalty to the official views on Herzen, Belinsky etc. – Dr Lampert […] was very sovietisant, and I think possibly in with him, and he used to come back to England from the Soviet Union and tell me with bated breath that the scholars thought I was a very sinister influence because of my misinterpretation of the nineteenth-century revolutionaries. However, I did meet a Soviet scholar in the Bodleian – a very nice Shakespeare expert, in the company of a philosopher called [Valentin Ferdinandovich] Asmus: two perfectly decent men. I complained to them about these attacks on me, and one of them said ‘This does you nothing but the greatest honour’, implying, though he didn’t quite say, that my opponent was a scoundrel – which indeed he was.

~ Mehta, Ved, Fly and the Fly-Bottle: Encounters with British Intellectuals (Boston, 1963: Atlantic/Little, Brown)

Rotenstreich, Nathan, ‘Historical Inevitability and Human Responsibility’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 23 (March 1963), 380–96


Current Biography Yearbook 1964, ed. Charles Moritz (New York, 1965), 38–40

~ Dray, William H., Philosophy of History (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1964: Prentice-Hall), esp. 24

Hanzawa, Takamaro, ‘Isaiah Berlin no rekishi riron: gendai Igirisu seiji shisoushi no noto yori’ [‘A Criticism of Sir Isaiah Berlin’s Theory of History: A Note on the Intellectual History of Contemporary England’], Tokyo toritsu diagaku hougakkai zassi [Tokyo Metropolitan University Journal of Law and Politics] 4 no. 1 (1964), 1–20

Kahler, Erich, The Meaning of History (New York, 1964: Braziller; London, 1965: Chapman & Hall), chapter 5

~ Shackle, G. L. S., ‘The Hedgehog and the Fox’, Indian Journal of Economics 34 (1964); repr. as chapter 2 of The Nature of Economic Thought: Selected Papers 1955–1964 (Cambridge, 1966: Cambridge University Press), 16–32


~ Eliot, T. S., To Criticize the Critic (London, 1965: Faber), 137

McCloskey, H. J., ‘A Critique of the Ideals of Liberty’, Mind 74 (1965), 483–508

Murphy, G. G. S., ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin on the Concept of Scientific History: A Comment’, History and Theory 4 (1965), 234–43

~ Pollard, Sydney, ‘Economic History – A Science of Society?’, Past and Present 30 (April 1965), 3–22

Ryan, Alan, ‘Freedom’, Philosophy 40 (April 1965), 93–112 [API]

Thomas, D. O., ‘Political Philosophy Today’, Philosophy 40 (April 1965), 162–164

~ White, Morton, The Foundations of Historical Knowledge (New York, 1965: Harper & Row), 275 ff.


~ [Barraclough, Geoffrey,] ‘New Ways in History’, The Times Literary Supplement, 7 April 1966, 295

~ Bowra, C. M., Memories: 1898–1939 (London, 1966: Weidenfeld & Nicolson)

~ Caute, David, ‘Crisis in All Souls: A Case-History in Reform’, Encounter, March 1966, 3–15: repr. in Collisions: Essays and Reviews (London, 1974: Quartet Books), 12–40, with a postscript dated January 1973, 40–5

Crick, Bernard R., Freedom as Politics (Sheffield, 1966: University of Sheffield); repr. in his Political Theory and Practice (London, [1972])

Macfarlane, L. J., ‘On Two Concepts of Liberty’, Political Studies 14 no. 1 (1966), 77–81


~ d’Entrèves, Alessandro Passerin, La dottrina dello stato (Turin, 1967: Giappichelli), 281–312

Quinton, Anthony (ed.), Political Philosophy (London, 1967: Oxford University Press)

MacCallum, Gerald C., Jr, ‘Berlin on the Compatibility of Values, Ideals, and “Ends” ’, Ethics 77 (1966–7), 139–45

MacCallum, Gerald C., jr, ‘Negative and Positive Freedom’, Philosophical Review 76 (1967), 312–34; repr. as ‘Negative and Positive Liberty’ in Peter Laslett, W. G. Runciman and Quentin Skinner (eds), Philosophy, Politics and Society, 4th Series (Oxford, 1972: Blackwell)

Stover, Robert, The Nature of Historical Thinking (Chapel Hill, 1967: University of North Carolina Press) [API]

Weizmann, V., The Impossible Takes Longer (London, 1967: Hamish Hamilton)


Anderson, Perry, ‘Components of the National Culture’, New Left Review 50 (July–August 1968), 3–57, esp. 25–8; repr. in Alexander Cockburn and Robin Blackburn (eds), Student Power (Harmondsworth, 1969: Penguin), 214–86, esp. 239–42 and 281

~ Hopkinson, Diana, The Incense-Tree: An Autobiography (London, 1968), esp. 84

Milne, Alan J. M., Freedom and Rights (London, 1968: Allen and Unwin)

Sykes, Christopher, Troubled Loyalty: A Biography of Adam von Trott zu Solz (London, 1968: Collins), esp. pp. 100, 110–11 (and see index s.v. IB)


~ Chapman, John W., ‘Voluntary Association and the Political Theory of Pluralism’, in J. Roland Pennock and John W. Chapman (eds), Voluntary Associations (New York, 1969: Atherton Press) [Nomos 11], 92, 109

~ d’Entrèves, Alessandro Passerin, ‘Sul concetto di libertà politica’, Rivista internazionale di filosofia del diritto 46 (1969), 286–97

Cohen, Gerald A., ‘A Note on Values and Sacrifices’ (reply to MacCallum), Ethics 79 (1968–9), 159–62

Hampshire, Stuart, ‘Vico and Language’, New York Review of Books, 13 February 1969, 19–22

Orsini, G. N. G., ‘Feuerbach’s Supposed Objection to Hegel’, Journal of the History of Ideas 30 (1969),85–90

Rohatyn, Dennis A., ‘On Behalf of Ebel and Berlin’, Mill News Letter 5 no. 1 (Fall 1969), 6–9


~ Chiaromonte, Nicola, The Paradox of History: Stendhal, Tolstoy, Pasternak and others (London, [1970]: Weidenfeld & Nicolson), 9; xix in the reprint with a foreword by Joseph Frank and a postface by Mary McCarthy (Philadelphia, 1985: University of Pennsylvania Press); 43 in the Italian translation, Credere e non credere (Bologna, 1993: Il Mulino); Berlin’s ‘The Hedgehog and the Fox’ is discussed in the second chapter, ‘Tolstoy and the Paradox of History’ (1970 ed., 29–56; 1985 ed., 17–50)


Arblaster, A., ‘Vision and Revision: A Note on the Text of Isaiah Berlin’s Four Essays on Liberty’, Political Studies 19 No 1 (1971), 81–6

~ Daiches, David, A Third World ([Brighton/London, 1971: Sussex University Press/Chatto and Windus])

Eslick, Leonard J., ‘The Republic Revisited; The Dilemma of Liberty and Authority’, Philosophical Forum (Dekalb) 10 (December 1971), 171–212


Fox, C. J., ‘Sorel’ (letter), The Times Literary Supplement, 7 January 1972, 14

Ilan, Amitzur, [in Hebrew] ‘Moyne Supported a Jewish State’ (‘reader’s letter’), Ha'aretz, 14 November 1972, 20; comments on IB’s lecture ‘Zionist Politics in Wartime Washington’

~ Matteucci, Nicola, Il liberalismo in un mondo in trasformazione (Bologna, 1972: il Mulino)

Olmert, Ehud, [in Hebrew] ‘Berlin the Musician’ (about Irving Berlin’s meeting with Churchill), Ha’aretz, 8 October 1972, 6

Yahil, Chaim, [in Hebrew] ‘The Soul-Searching of Sir Isaiah Berlin: Critical Remarks’, Zot Ha’aretz, 10 November 1972 (No 115), 3; comments on IB’s lecture ‘Zionist Politics in Wartime Washington’

Yellin-Mor, Nathan, [in Hebrew] ‘Apology of a Sceptic’, Ha’aretz, 18 October 1972, 15 (‘The Assignment – To Silence the Outcry: Isaiah Berlin Confesses his Errors after Waiting 30 Years’); 19 October 1972, 9 (‘The Historiosophy of Beggars: I. Berlin and Weizmann Wrongly Predicted Historical Developments’); 20 October 1972, 15 (‘What If Lord Moyne Had Not Been Assassinated? Hypotheses and Conjectures Hanging by a Thread’); comments adversely on IB’s lecture ‘Zionist Politics in Wartime Washington’, which had been serialised in Ha’aretz earlier in the month


Cumming, Robert D, ‘Is man still man?’, Social Research 40 (1973), 481–510

Macpherson, C. B., ‘Berlin’s Division of Liberty’, in his Democratic Theory: Essays in Retrieval (Oxford, 1973: Oxford University Press), 95–119


Connolly, William E., The Terms of Political Discourse (Lexington, Massachusetts, 1974: D. C. Heath)

d’Entrèves, Alessandro Passerin (ed.), ‘Prefazione’, in La libertà politica (Milan, 1974: Edizioni di Comunità), 7–17

~ Gore-Booth, Paul, With Great Truth and Respect [memoirs] (London, 1974: Constable)

~ Lloyd-Jones, Hugh (ed.), Maurice Bowra: A Celebration (London, 1974)

~ Mandelstam, Nadezhda, Hope Abandoned: A Memoir, trans. Max Hayward (London, 1974: Collins Harvill), 357–8

Parent, W., ‘Some Recent Work on the Concept of Liberty’, American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (1974), 149–67

Ryan, Alan, ‘A Glamorous Salon: Isaiah Berlin’s Disparate Gifts’, Encounter 43 no. 4 (October 1974), 67–72


Hardy, Henry, ‘A Bibliography of Isaiah Berlin’, Lycidas (the magazine of Wolfson College, Oxford) 3 (1974–5), 41–5; additions in the subsequent issue; repr. in revised form in AC; now updated online

Steiner, Hillel, ‘Individual Liberty’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 75 (1974–5), 33–50 [API]

~ Wheeler-Bennett, John, Special Relationships: America in Peace and War (New York, 1975 [and London same year?]: St Martin’s Press/Macmillan)


Beatty, Jack, ‘Intellectual Portraits’, Commentary 62 no. 5 (November 1976), 86–91

Bernstein, Richard Jacob, The Restructuring of Social and Political Theory (Oxford, 1976: Blackwell)

Geerken, John H., ‘Machiavelli Studies since 1969’, Journal of the History of Ideas 37 (1976), 351–68 [API]

~ Haight, Amanda, Anna Akhmatova: A Poetic Pilgrimage (New York and London, 1976: Oxford University Press)

Howes, John, ‘Is Berlin right about Mill’s arguments against censorship?’, Philosophical Papers 5 (May 1976), 85–98

Kizer, J. B., ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, Freeman 26 no. 9 (September 1976)

Loenen, J. H. M. M., ‘The Concept of Freedom in Berlin and Others: An Attempt at Clarification’, Journal of Value Inquiry 10 (1976), 279–85 [API]

Momigliano, Arnaldo, ‘On the Pioneer Trail’, review of VH, NYRB, 11 November 1976

Togawa, Tsuguo, ‘1848 nen no. kakumei to Chaadaev no. gyakusetsu: Berlin no. Chaadaev zou heno hanron toshite’ [‘The Revolution of 1848 and the Paradox of Chaadaev: A Critique of Berlin’s Interpretation of Chaadaev’s Attitude during the Revolutionary Period’], in Slavu kenkyu [Slavic Studies (Hokkaido University] no. 21 (1976), 55–81

~ Wheeler-Bennett, John, Friends, Enemies, and Sovereigns (London, 1976), 69


~ Ayer, A. J., Part of My Life (Oxford, 1977: Oxford University Press)

~ Dworkin, Ronald, Taking Rights Seriously (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977: Harvard University Press; London, 1977: Duckworth)

Häikiö, Martti, ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin: maanpakolaisfilosofit maailmaa muuttamassa’ [‘Sir Isaiah Berlin: exile philosophers changing the world’], Historiallinen Aikakauskirja [The Historical Journal of Finland] 1977 no. 1, 18–28


Abramsky, Chimen, ‘A Sage in Oxford’, Jewish Chronicle Literary Supplement, 9 June 1978, 1–2

Farganis, Sandra, ‘Liberty: Two Perspectives on the Women’s Movement’, Ethics 88 (1977–8), 62–73 [API]

~ Gewirth, Alan, Reason and Morality (Chicago, 1978: University of Chicago Press), pp. 368, 372

Gould, James A., ‘The Neglected Freedom’, Journal of Thought 13 (April 1978), 124–32

~ Haag, Ernest van den, ‘Liberty: Negative or Positive’, Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 1 (1978), 63–86

Hardy, Henry, ‘Editing Isaiah Berlin’s Writings’, British Book News, January 1978, 3, 5; repr. in Lycidas (the magazine of Wolfson College, Oxford) 7 (1978), 34–5

Otto, Stephan, ‘Geistesgeschichte zwischen Philosophie und Feuilleton’,Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 32 (January–March 1978), 77–82 [API]


Blumenfeld, Yorick, ‘Is Isaiah Berlin the Philosopher of the 1980s?’, International Herald Tribune, 28 December 1979, Weekend Supplement, pp. 7W and 10W

~ d’Entrèves, Alessandro Passerin, ‘Obbligo politico e società aperta’, in id., Il palchetto assegnato agli statisti e altri scritti di varia politica (Milan, 1979: Franco Angeli)

Fyvel, Tosco R., ‘Isaiah Berlin at Seventy’, Jewish Chronicle, 1 June 1979, 15

Mazurek, Kaz, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Philosophy of History: Structure, Method, Implications’, Philosophy and Social Criticism 6 (1979), 391–406 [API]

White, M., ‘Oughts and Cans’, The Idea of Freedom, ed. A. Ryan (Oxford, 1979: Oxford University Press), 211–19


Abbott, Philip, Furious Fancies: American Political Thought in the Post-Liberal Era (Westport, Connecticut, 1980: Greenwood Press)

anon., ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin’, Observer, 9 November 1980, 16: ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin describes as “grotesque” the statement: “A work of art is no. good if it does not provoke a furore”, which we, in good faith, attributed to him in Sayings of the Week last week. Sir Isaiah points out that he has never thought or said anything of the kind.’

Bowman, John S., ‘The Hedgehog and the Fox’, New York Review of Books, 25 September 1980, 67; reply by Jonathan Lieberson and Sidney Morgenbesser, 67–8

Crocker, Lawrence, Positive Liberty (The Hague, 1980: Nijhoff)

Gould, James A., ‘Freedom: Triadic or Tripartite?’, Modern Schoolman 58 (November 1980), 47–52 [API]

Hook, Sidney, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Enlightenment’, Commentary, 69 no. 5 (May 1980), 61–4

Kocis, Robert, ‘Reason, Development, and the Conflicts of Human Ends: Sir Isaiah Berlin’s Vision of Politics’, American Political Science Review 74 (1980), 38–52

Litvinoff, Barnet (general editor), The Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann XXIII Series A August 1947–June 1952, 225n

Lukacs, John, ‘The Tolstoy Locomotive on the Berlin Track’, University Bookman 20 no. 4 (Summer 1980)

Reed, Gary Frank, ‘Berlin and the Division of Liberty’, Political Theory 8 (1980), 365–80

~ Véliz, Claudio, The Centralist Tradition of Latin America (Princreton, 1986: Princeton University Press), Introduction, at 12–13


Aarsleff, Hans, ‘Vico and Berlin’, London Review of Books, 5–18 November 1981, 6–7; reply by IB, 7–8; letters, 3–16 June 1982, 5

~ Michael Biddiss, ‘The Nuremberg Trial: Two Exercises in Judgment’, Journal of Contemporary History 16 no. 3 [The Second World War: Part 2] (July 1981), 597–615, at 600–1

Llosa, Mario Vargas, ‘Un héroe de nuestro tiempo’, introduction to El erizo y la zorra (Barcelona, 1981: Muchnik); serialised in El Comercio (Lima), October–December 1980; repr. in Mario Vargas Llosa, Contra viento y marea (1962–1982) (Barcelona, 1983: Seix Barral), 406–24, and id., Contra viento y marea, II (1972–1984) (Barcelona, 1986: Seix Barral), 260–78; excerpted in English as ‘Isaiah Berlin: A Hero of Our Time’ in id., Making Waves, ed. and trans. John King (London, 1996: Faber; New York, 1997: Farrar, Straus and Giroux), 144–7

~ Sellery, J’nan M., and William O. Harris, Elizabeth Bowen: A Bibliogrpahy (Austin, 1981: Humanities Research Center, University of Texas)

Williams, B., Moral Luck: Philosophical Papers, 1973–1980 (Cambridge, 1981: Cambridge University Press)


~ Grant Duff, Shiela, The Parting of Ways: A Personal Account of the Thirties (London/Boston, 1982: Peter Owen)

Lieberson, Jonathan, and Russell Jacoby, exchange on Isaiah Berlin: ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Limits of Liberal Theory: A Response to Russell Jacoby’ and ‘A Reply to Lieberson’, Salmagundi 57 (Summer 1982), 185–90, 191–2

Parekh, Bhikhu, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, chapter 2 in his Contemporary Political Thinkers (Oxford, Martin Robertson, 1982) (repr. as ‘Review Article: The Political Thought of Sir Isaiah Berlin’, British Journal of Political Science 12 (1982), 201–26); trans. Spanish

Rothbard, M. N. The Ethics of Liberty (Atlantic Highlands, 1982: Humanities Press), esp. pp. 215–18

~ Vico, [Giambattista], Selected Writings, ed. and trans. Leon Pompa (Cambridge etc., 1982: Cambridge University Press)

~ Yoshikawa, Kojiro, Bunjaku no. kachi [The Value of Delicacy] (Tokyo, 1982: Chikuma), 158–9:

Records a conversation with IB. Yoshikawa's view was that China had not attached as much importance to fiction as the West. Historical literature was respected at the expense of novels and drama. Lyric poetry based on everyday life had been valued, but there was little epic poetry. In short, history had been regarded as the key ingredient in civilisation. Yoshikawa wanted to amend the new standard imported from the West, the standard (originating from Aristotle) that attaches greater importance to fiction. When he talked with IB, he told him his thoughts on literature from the Chinese perspective. IB replied that it was very difficult to produce great literature in that way. Yoshikawa said that perhaps it was necessary to rethink what literary greatness is: China (and the East in general) has no. Homer or Shakespeare, but the West has no. great writers like Sima Qian (c.140–c.86 BC), father of Chinese historiography, author of hane, the first general history of China centered on a series of biographies, or Du Fu (712–70), one of China's greatest poets.


Fukuda, Kanichi, ‘Isaiah Berlin no. hito to gyoseki: nihonban senshu no. kankou ni atatte’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s Life and Works: For the Publication of Japanese Selected Works’], in K. Fukuda and H. Kawai (eds), Jidai to kaiso: Berlin senshu 2 [Times and Retrospect: Selected Works of Berlin vol. 2] (Tokyo, 1983: Iwanami Shoten), 339–63

~ Hampshire, Stuart, Morality and Conflict (Oxford, 1983: Basil Blackwell)

Hardy, Henry, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, in Gavin Ewart (ed.), Other People’s Clerihews (Oxford, 1983: Oxford University Press), 9

Hausheer, Roger, ‘Berlin and the Emergence of Liberal Pluralism’, in Pierre Manent and others, European Liberty: Four Essays on the Occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the Erasmus Prize Foundation (The Hague etc., 1983: Martinus Nijhoff), 49–80

Hausheer, Roger, entry on IB in Alan Bullock and R. B. Woodings (eds), The Fontana Biographical Companion to Modern Thought (London. 1983: Fontana)

Kim, Chrysostom, OSB, ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin of Oxford on Some Anglomaniac Zionists He Has Known’, American Benedictine Review 34 no. 3 (September 1983), 223–39

Kocis, Robert, ‘Toward a Coherent Theory of Human Moral Development: Beyond Sir Isaiah Berlin’s Vision of Human Nature’, Political Studies 31 (1983), 370–87 (IB’s reply, ibid., 388–93)

Miller, David, ‘Constraints on Freedom’, Ethics 94 (1983), 66–86

Nielsen, Kai, ‘Formulating Egalitarianism: Animadversions on Berlin’, Philosophia (Israel) 13 (October 1983), 299–316

~ Ollman, Bertell, Class Struggle is the Name of the Game: True Confessions of a Marxist Businessman (New York, 1983: Morrow), 29–30; on being taught by IB

~ Powell, Anthony, To Keep the Ball Rolling: The Memoirs of Anthony Powell (Harmondsworth etc., 1983: Penguin); see also the four volumes of which this one is an abridgement


Baldwin, Tom, ‘MacCallum and the Two Concepts of Freedom’, Ratio 26 no. 2 (1984), 125–42

Litvinoff, Barnet (general editor), The Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann, II Series B, December 1931–April 1952, 407–9

Momigliano, Arnaldo, ‘Due libri inglesi su Vico’, in id., Sui fondamenti della storia antica (Turin, 1984: Einaudi), 230–51

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, ‘Krytyka koncepcji wolnosci pozytywnej w ujeciu Isaiaha Berlina’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s critique of the positive concept of freedom’], Studia nauk politycznych 3 (1984), 49–65

Rapaport, L. ‘The Hoskins Affair’, Jerusalem Post, 23 November 1984, ?

Sandel, M. ‘Introduction’ to his Liberalism and its Critics (New York, 1984: New York University Press), 1–11

Santambrogio, Marco, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Oxford–Moscou’, Libération, 19 November 1984, 34–5

Shibuya, Hiroshi, ‘Seiji tetsugaku to jiyū no. mondai: Isaiah Berlin no. baai’ [‘Political Philosophy and the Problems of Liberty: A Study of Isaiah Berlin’], in Meiji Gakuin Ronso, Hogaku Kenkyu [The Meiji Gakuin Law Review] no. 362 (1984), 75–97

Skinner, Q., ‘The Idea of Negative Liberty: Philosophical and Historical Perspectives’, in R. Rorty, J. B. Schneewind and Q. Skinner (eds), Philosophy in History (Cambridge, 1984: Cambridge University Press), 193–221


Arneson, Richard J., ‘Freedom and Desire’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 15 (1985), 425–48

Macpherson, C. B., ‘Pluralism, Individualism, and Participation’, in his The Rise and Fall of Economic Justice and Other Essays (Oxford, 1985: Oxford University Press), 92–100

Miller, David, ‘Reply to Oppenheim’, Ethics 95 (1985), 310–14

Ogawa, Koichi, ‘Berlin no. jiyūron’ [‘On the Two Concepts of Liberty in Isaiah Berlin’], in Hokudai hogaku ronshu [Hokkaido Law Review], 36 nos 1–2 (1985), 39–83, 36 no..4 (1986), 1239–89

Oppenheim, Felix E., ‘Constraints on Freedom as a Descriptive Concept’, Ethics 95 (1985), 305–9

Rubirola i Torrent, Miquel, ‘Los valores de la sociedad liberal’ [The values of a liberal society], La Vanguardia [Barcelona], 24 December 1985, 32–3

~ Spender, Stephen, Journals 19391983, ed. John Goldsmith (London, 1985: Faber)

Zagorin, Perez, ‘Berlin on Vico’, Philosophical Quarterly 35 (1985), 290–5 [API]


~ Brown, Alan, Modern Political Philosophy: Theories of the Just Society (Harmondsworth, 1986: Penguin), 157–8: a consequentialist argument against value pluralism

Bryan, Ferald J., ‘Vico on Metaphor: Implications for Rhetorical Criticism’, Philosophy and Rhetoric 19 (1986), 255–65

Gray, John N., Liberalism (Milton Keynes, 1986: Open University Press. Minneapolis, 1986: University of Minnesota Press)

Nei, Yasuo, ‘Shokyokuteki jiyū to sekkyokuteki jiyū’ [‘Negative and Positive Freedom’], in Miyazaki daigaku kyouikugakubu kiyou, jinbunkagaku [Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Miyazaki University, the Humanities] no. 59 (1986), 79–90

~ Philp, Mark, Godwin’s Political Justice (London, 1986: Duckworth; Ithaca, 1986: Cornell University Press), 229

~ Rorty, R. ‘The Contingency of Language’, ‘The Contingency of Selfhood’ and ‘The Contingency of Community’, London Review of Books, 17 April, 8 May and 24 July 1986, 3–6, 11–15 and 10–14

Rorty, R., ‘Thugs and Theorists: A Reply to Bernstein’, Political Theory 15 (1986), 564–80

~ Veca, Salvatore, Una filosofia pubblica (Milan, 1986: Feltrinelli)

§Walzer, M., ‘Introduction’ to Isaiah Berlin, The Hedgehog and the Fox (New York, 1986: Simon & Schuster), [i–xi]

~ Wilson, Edmund, The Fifties, ed. Leon Edel (New York/London, 1986: Farrar, Straus and Giroux/Macmillan)


Barry, Norman, ‘Berlin, Isaiah’, in Roland Turner (ed.), Thinkers of the Twentieth Century (Chicago and London, 1987: St James Press), 71–3

~ Connolly, W., ‘Pluralism’, in D. Miller, J. Coleman, W. Connolly and A. Ryan (eds), The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought (Oxford, 1987: Basil Blackwell)

~ Dennett, Daniel (ed.), entry on ‘Berlin’ in The Philosophical Lexicon, 8th ed. [also in earlier editions?] (Newark, 1987: American Philosophical Association), 6:

berlin, N. An old-fashioned stage coach, filled with international travellers, all talking rapidly and telling anecdotes of vivid life elsewhere. ‘As the berlin came through town, one could hear many accents one had never heard before, and delightful tales.’

~ Charles Larmore, Patterns of Moral Complexity (Cambridge, 1987: Cambridge University Press)

Jones, Judy and Wilson, William, An Incomplete Education (New York, 1987: Ballantine)

Megone, Christopher, ‘One Concept of Liberty’, Political Studies 35 (1987), 611–22

~ Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, ‘Give Them Soothing Pills’, Oxford Magazine, Noughth Week, Hilary Term (1987), 3

Proß, Wolfgang, ‘Herder und Vico: Wissenssoziologische Voraussetzungen des historischen Denkens’, in Gerhard Sauder (ed.), Johann Gottfried Herder 1744–1803 (Hamburg, 1987: Felix Meiner), 88–113; Steffen Groß summarises:

Proß takes issue with IB in two areas. First, he calls into question IB’s concept of the Counter-Enlightenment; secondly, he is in some respects sceptical about the quality of his work on Vico and Herder, primarily in Vico and Herder . His questioning of the concept of Counter-Enlightenment provides a framework for discussion of the latter issue.

Proß accepts the concept of Counter-Enlightenment as a kind of analytic tool, as a ‘heuristic construct’ which is a necessary part of the processes of forming scientific concepts (p. 89). But there is always the danger that such constructs begin to live a life of their own, that they gain a separate, independent existence. Proß thinks that exactly this is the case with IB’s concept of the Counter-Enlightenment, of which, in IB’s version, Vico and Herder appear as the ‘great exponents’ (p. 89).

Proß goes on to compares IB’s studies on Vico and Herder with his earlier work on Hume and Hume’s influence on German Idealism, and says that IB’s work on Hume is much more deeply considered than his studies on Vico and Herder (pp. 89–90). Proß says that IB has not caught up with the ideas of Friedrich Meinecke in Die Entstehung des Historismus (Munich and Berlin, 1936) – translated by J. G. Anderson as Historism: The Rise of a New Historical Outlook (London, 1972) – and even Meinecke is out of date, at any rate since the appearance of more advanced studies about the topic (p. 90, note 7). Proß refers with great enthusiasm to Panajotis Kondylis’s Die Aufklärung im Rahmen des neuzeitlichen Rationalismus (‘The Enlightenment within the Framework of Modern Rationalism’).

Proß’s main objection to IB’s treatment of Vico is that he has only a partial perception of Vico and takes the part for the whole. He seems to see only the older Vico of the Scienza nuova, and neglects the works and achievements of the younger man. Furthermore, Berlin neglects the research done on Vico that Proß calls ‘Vico-philology’, and claims the right to decide which of Vico’s thoughts and writings should be regarded as important and which not (p. 90).

IB doesn’t see that the division between natural sciences and cultural sciences still did not exist for Vico and Herder, despite their insight that it would be highly problematic to apply the Cartesian Method to social life and its historical development.

Thirdly, Proß’s opinion is that IB overestimates the trend towards historical individualisation and the perception (and reflection) of that tendency in the eighteenth century (p. 91). Rather, Vico’s interest in the individuality of historical forms was driven by his search for a scientific method or framework that could be applied to all variants of historical phenomena and their succession. If one needs a formula, one could say that the Zeitgeist of the eighteenth century was primarily ‘No Plurality without Unity’. Both Vico and Herder devoted themselves to their heterogeneous material and its contradictions, but they did so before the establishment of a radically systematic vanishing-point (p. 92).

Steffen Groß adds on his own account: I should say that I regard the concept of Counter-Enlightenment as substantial, not only heuristic. There was indeed a Counter-Enlightenment, but it was led by figures such as the pietist Professor of Divinity Joachim Lange (who achieved the dismissal of Christian Wolff), certainly not by Vico and Herder. Vico and Herder are much more exponents of the self-critical forces within the Enlightenment. Moreover, it seems to me intellectually unserious to restrict ‘The Enlightenment’ to its rationalistic stream (even if that was its most powerful element). The Enlightenment was a highly diverse movement, certainly including and uniting such different authors as Kant and Hamann, Vico and Herder – but certainly not Lange.

Rosenblum, N., Another Liberalism: Romanticism and the Reconstruction of Liberal Thought (Cambridge, Mass., 1987: Harvard University Press)

Ross, G. ‘The Decline of the Left Intellectual in Modern France’, Intellectuals in Liberal Democracies, ed. A. G. Gagnon (New York, 1987: Praeger)

~ Scarpelli, Uberto, ‘Il concetto di libertà politica nel pensiero di Alessandro Passerin d’Entrèves’, Rivista internazionale di filosofia del diritto 65 (1988), 116–22

Scarpelli, Uberto, ‘Le due libertà di sir Isaiah’, Il sole ventiquattrore, 16 February 1988

~ Szasz, Thomas S., Insanity: The Idea and its Consequences (New York, 1987: Wiley)

~ Waldron, Jeremy, ‘Theoretical Foundations of Liberalism’, Philosophical Quarterly 37 no. 147 (April 1987), 127–50: highly recommended


Agnelli Foundation, The Giovanni, ‘The Senator Giovanni Agnelli International Prize’, New York Review of Books,17 May 1988

Crowder, George, ‘Negative and Positive Liberty’, Political Science 40 no. 2 (December 1988), 57–73

~ Hadari, S. A., ‘Value Trade-off’, Journal of Politics 50 no. 3 (1988), 655–76

~ James, Wendy, The Listening Ebony (Oxford, 1988: Clarendon Press), esp. pp. 142–56, ‘On Moral Knowledge’

Pitkin, H. F., ‘Are Freedom and Liberty Twins?’, Political Theory 16 no. 4 (1988), 523–52

Verri, Antonio, ‘Pluralismo culturale e itinerari della libertà: profilo di Isaiah Berlin’, Segni e comprensione 4 (May–August 1988), 84–90


anon., ‘Between Two Worlds: Sir Isaiah Berlin at Eighty’, Jewish Chronicle, 9 June 1989, 30

anon., ‘Embodiement of the Oxford ideal’, Observer, 11 June 1989, 13

Brodsky, Joseph, ‘Isaiah Berlin at Eighty’, New York Review of Books, 17 August 1989, 44–5

De Zan, Julio, ‘La libertad y el concepto de lo politico’, Cuadernos de Filosofía 20 no. 33 (October 1989), 31–9 [API]

Gan, Yang, ‘The Enemy of Liberty: Monism of Truth, Goodness and Beauty’ (in Chinese), Dushu, 10 June 1989, 121–8

Published at the time of the Tiananmen Square protests, this is the first essay written by a Chinese scholar to introduce IB’s thought to mainland China. Gan Yang writes that IB’s philosophy has two foci, pluralism and freedom to choose. He emphasises that although monism is very attractive to most people, especially to intellectuals, pluralism is vital for individual freedom, because monism often leads to tyranny and the destruction of individual freedom. However, pluralism is difficult to accept, because it recognises the incomparability and incommensurability of values, ideas most people do not warm to.

Modern history, especially that of twentieth-century China, shows that monism has not brought the ideal society that people long for: rather it has brought much tragedy and suffering. Gan Yang calls on China’s intellectuals to reject monism and decide to act like the fox who knows many different things: this would be good not only for China, but also for humankind. (His views have subsequently changed.)

Goodman, Arnold, and Brock, Michael, ‘Isaiah Berlin: The World and Wolfson – Two Appreciations’, Oxford Magazine no. 48 (Trinity Term 1989, Eighth Week), 6–7

Gray, J., ‘On Negative and Positive Liberty’, chapter 4 in his Liberalisms: Essays in Political Philosophy (London and New York, 1989: Routledge), 45–68

Hausheer, Roger, entry on IB in Glenda Abramson (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Jewish Culture from the Eighteenth Century to the Present (Oxford, 1989: Blackwell)

~ Holmes, Stephen, ‘The Lion of Illiberalism’, New Republic, 30 October 1989, 32–7

Ikehata, Tadashi, ‘ “Sekkyokuteki jiyū” toshite no. hyougen no. jiyū: Berlin no. hutatsu no. jiyū gainen wo megutte’ [‘Freedom of Expression as “Positive Freedom” ’], in Rokkodai Ronshu (Kobe University), 36 no. 1 (1989), 87–108

Lukes, Steven, ‘Making Sense of Moral Conflict’, in Nancy L. Rosenblum (ed.), Liberalism and the Moral Life (Cambridge, Mass., 1989: Harvard University Press)

~ MacDonogh, Giles, The Good German: Adam on Trott zu Solz (London, 1989: Quartet)

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, ‘One Voice More on Berlin’s Doctrine of Liberty’, Political Studies 37 (1989), 123–7

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, ‘Two Visions of Liberty – Berlin and Hayek’, Reports on Philosophy 13 (1989), 61–72

Rosenblum, Nancy L., ‘Pluralism and Self-Defense’, in Nancy L. Rosenblum (ed.), Liberalism and the Moral Life (Cambridge, Masachusetts, 1989: Harvard University Press)

Santambrogio, M., ‘Astrazioni oppressive’, Notizie di politeia 5 (1989), 26–33

Sasaki, Fumiko, ‘The International Political Thought of Isaiah Berlin’, Aoyama SIPA Bulletin 1990

Scruton, Roger, ‘Freedom’s Cautious Defender’, Times, 3 June 1989, 10

Shklar, Judith N. ‘The Liberalism of Fear,’ in Nancy L. Rosenblum (ed.), Liberalism and the Moral Life (Cambridge, Masachusetts, 1989: Harvard University Press); repr. in Judith N. Shklar, Political Thought and Political Thinkers, ed. Stanley Hoffmann (Chicago, 1998: University of Chicago Press)

~ Spinelli, Ingrid Warburg, Die Dringlichkeit des Mitleids und die Einsamkeit, nein zu sagen: Erinnerungen 19101989 (Hamburg, 1990: Dolling and Galitz); Italian trans., Il tempo della coscienza: Ricordi di un’altra Germania 1910–1989 (Bologna, 1994: Il mulino), 46, 47, 211, 212 (there is a whole chapter on Adam von Trott)

Stallworthy, Jon, ‘The Guest from the Future: a triptych 1940–1988 Leningrad–Tashkent–Moscow–Oxford’, Oxford Magazine Trinity 1989 3–5

~ Veca, Salvatore, Etica e politica (Milan, 1989: Garzanti)

Isaiah Berlin e il pluralismo culturale

Verri, Antonio, ‘Isaiah Berlin e il pluralismo culturale’, Il pensiero politico 22 no. 1 (January 1989), 86–93


Agnelli Foundation, The Giovanni, ‘The Senator Giovanni Agnelli International Prize’, New York Review of Books, 14 June 1990

~ D’Agostino, F., ‘Ethical Pluralism and the Role of Opposition in Democratic Politics’, Monist 73 no. 3 (1990), 437–63

~ Annan, Noel, Our Age (London, 1990: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, 1990: Random House; London, 1991: Fontana, subtitled ‘The Generation that Made Post-war Britain’), esp. pp. 371–8

Dénes, Iván Zoltán, ‘Isaiah Berlin gondolkodói portréja’ [‘An intellectual portrait of Isaiah Berlin’], in Isaiah Berlin, Négy esszé a szabadságról [ Four Essays on Liberty] (Budapest, 1990: Európa), 525–42

Galipeau, C. J., ‘Liberalism and Zionism: The Case of Isaiah Berlin’, Queen’s Quarterly 97 (1990), 379–93

~ Garver, E., ‘Why Pluralism Now?’, Monist, 73 no. 3 (1990), 388–410

Gaus, Gerald F., Value and Justification: The Foundations of Liberal Theory (Cambridge, 1990: Cambridge University Press), pp. 176, 177, 221, 222, 391, 392, 395

Gray, Tim, Freedom (London, 1990: Macmillan)

~ Hughes, H. Stuart, Gentleman Rebel: The Memoirs of H. Stuart Hughes (New York, 1990: Ticknor and Fields)

Knoll, Samson B., ‘No Conservative’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 27 September 1990, 78

McBride, William L., ‘ “Two Concepts of Liberty” Thirty Years Later: A Sartre Inspired Critique’, Social Theory and Practice 16 no. 3 (Fall 1990), 297–322 [API]

~ Parker, Christopher, The English Historical Tradition since 1850 (Edinburgh, 1990: John Donald); there is a good brief discussion of IB’s writings on history on pp. 222–3

Renick, Timothy N., ‘Response to Berlin and McBride’, Social Theory and Practice 16 no. 3 (Fall 1990), 323–5 [API]

Ritter, Henning, ‘Die Geschichte hat kein Libretto’, Introduction to Der Nationalismus [from Against the Current], trans. Johannes Fritsche (Frankfurt am Main, 1990: Anton Hain); repr. as ‘“Die Geschichte hat kein Libretto”: Zu Isaiah Berlins Begriff des Nationalismus’ in Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 39 no. 2 (1991), 168–79, and as ‘Die Geschichte hat keine Libretto: Alter und neuer Nationalismus’ in Henning Ritter, Der lange Schattern: Überlegungen zwischen den Tagen (Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig, 1992: Insel)

Sen, A. ‘Individual Freedom as a Social Commitment’, The New York Review of Books 14 (June 1990)

Verri, Antonio, ‘Isaiah Berlin e la cultura italiana’, Il veltro 34 (1990), 439–54


~ Badillo O’Farrell, Pablo, ¿Qué libertad? En torno al concepto de libertad en la actual filosofía política británica (Madrid, 1991: Tecnos)

~ Bosetti, Giancarlo, Il legno storto e altre cinque idee per ripensare la sinistra: Dahl, Hirschman, Sabel, Sen, Unger, Walzer, con una postfazione di Norberto Bobbio (Venice, 1991: Marsilio)

Christman, John, ‘Liberalism and Individual Positive Freedom’, Ethics 101 (1991), 343–59

Crowder, George, Classical Anarchism: The Political Thought of Godwin, Proudhon, Bakunin, and Kropotkin (Oxford 1991: Clarendon Press), esp. ch. 1 and pp. 127–9

Delannoi, Gil, ‘Le pluralisme de Sir Isaiah Berlin’, Critique, 1 October 1991, 776–81

~ Edinast-Vulcan, Daphna, Joseph Conrad and the Modern Temper (New York, 1991: Oxford University Press): contains a chapter on Conrad’s Under Western Eyes that makes use of ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’

~ [Forbes, Ali], ‘Lady Patricia Douglas’ (obituary), Sunday Telegraph, 27 January 1991, 20

Giner, Salvador, ‘Berlin: “Podría surgir un socialismo pluralista” ’, El País, 15 April 1991, 8

Haworth, Alan, ‘Models of Liberty: Berlin’s “Two Concepts” ’, Economy and Society 20 (1991), 245–59 [see also references at 257 note 2]

Hunt, Ian, ‘Freedom and its Conditions’, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69 (1991), 288–301 [API]

~ Jenkins, Roy, A Life at the Centre (London, 1991: Macmillan)

Lukes, Steven, Moral Conflict and Politics (Oxford, 1991: Clarendon Press)

McPherson, James M. ‘The Hedgehog and the Foxes’, Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 12 no. 1 (1991)

Massarenti, Armando, ‘È il dialogo l’ideale di sir Berlin’, Il sole ventiquattore, 17 February 1991

Miller, D., ‘Introduction’ to his edited volume, Liberty (Oxford, 1991: Oxford University Press), 1–20

Plant, Raymond, Modern Political Thought (Oxford, 1991: Blackwell), esp. pp. 235–8, 247–8

Racionero, Luis, ‘Isaiah Berlin, entre el zorro y el erizio’, ABC literario (supplement to ABC), 21 September 1991, xii

Sasaki, Fumiko, ‘The International Political Thought of Isaiah Berlin (2)’, Aoyama SIPA Bulletin 1991

Sekiguchi Masashi, ‘Futatsu no. jiyū gainen’ [‘Two Concepts of Liberty: After Isaiah Berlin’], in Seinan gakuin daigaku hogaku ronshu [The Seinan Law Review] 24 no. 1 (1991), 1–57, 24 no. 3 (1992), 43–107

Simhony, Avital, ‘On Forcing Individuals to be Free: T. H. Green’s Liberal Theory of Positive Freedom’, Political Studies 39 (1991), 303–20; says IB’s reading of Green is misleading

Skoble, Aeon James, ‘Conflicting Views of Liberalism’, Dialogue (Phi Sigma Tau) 33 nos 2–3 (April 1991), 47–50 [API]

Tsurumi Shunsuke, ‘Berlin: Berlin to hige’ [‘Berlin: Berlin and Stubble’], in Tsurumi Shunsuke, Tsurumi Shunsuke syū 2: senkousha tachi [Works of Tsurumi Shunsuke vol. 2: Trailblazers] (Tokyo, 1991: Chikuma Shobo)

~ Wang Zuoliang, ‘Wenxue de Lundun, shenghuo de Lundun’ [‘London of Literature, London of Life’], in Xinzhi de fengjingxian [Scenery of the mind] (Beijing, 1991: SDX Joint Publishing Company), 139–154 at 153, where Wang quotes Empson (whom he visited in London in 1982, his first visit to Britain after his return to China in 1949); Wang congratulated Empson on his election to the British Academy, and Empson said that he had written to IB complaining that the British Academy was too closed an institution, preferring to support archaeology rather than talented young scholars; IB denided the charge.


Béjar, Helena, ‘La necessidad de la elección’, Claves de razón práctica no. 22 (May 1992), 48–51

~ §Bellamy, Richard, Liberalism and Modern Society (Cambridge, 1992: Polity)

Bellamy, Richard, ‘T. H. Green, J. S. Mill, and Isaiah Berlin on the Nature of Liberty and Liberalism’, in Hyman Gross and Ross Harrison (eds), Jurisprudence: Cambridge Essays (Oxford, 1992: Clarendon Press), 257–85

Benewick, Robert, and Green, Philip, The Routledge Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Political Thinkers (London and New York, 1992: Routledge; 2nd ed. 1998): contains entry on IB

~ Conor Cruise O’Brien, The Great Melody: A Thematic Biography and Commented Anthology of Edmund Burke (London, 1992: Sinclair Stevenson)

Delgado-Gal, Alvaro, ‘Sir Isaiah se despide’ [Sir Isaiah says goodbye], Diario 16, 29 July 1992

Díaz-Urmeneta Muñoz, Juan Bosco, ‘Individualidad romantica y pluralismo’, Fragmentos de filosofia 1 (1992), 29–54

~ Donaldson, Frances, A Twentieth-Century Life (London, 1992: Weidenfeld & Nicolson)

Giner, Salvador, ‘El fuste de la razón: a modo de prólogo’, in Spanish trans. of The Crooked Timber of Humanity

Gould, James A., ‘The Free Person’, Journal of Thought 27 nos 3–4 (Spring–Summer 1992), 91–103

~ Gray, J., ‘Against the New Liberalism: Rawls, Dworkin and the Emptying of Political Life’, The Times Literary Supplement, 3 July 1992, 13–15

~ Hacking, Ian, ‘How, Why, When, and Were Did Language Go Public?’, Common Knowledge 1 no. 2 (1992), 74–91

~ Healey, Derek T., ‘Two Concepts of Political Economy’, Methodus (June 1992), 24–5

~ Khalil, Elias L., ‘Fox, Hegdehog, and Owl: Three Temperaments in Economic Discourse’, Methodus 4 no. 1 (June 1992), 101–9

~ Lewis, David M., The Jews of Oxford (Oxford, 1992: Oxford Jewish Congregation)

Lukes, Steven, ‘On Trade-Offs Between Values’, EUI Working Paper SPS no. 92/24 (Florence, 1992: European University Institute)

McKinney, Ronald H., ‘Towards a Postmodern Ethics: Sir Isaiah Berlin and John Caputo’, Journal of Value Inquiry 26 (1992), 395–407 [API] (IB’s reply ibid. 557–60 [API])

~ Mali, Joseph, The Rehabilitation of Myth: Vico’s ‘New Science’ (Cambridge, 1992: Cambridge University Press)

~ Petroni, A. M., ‘Sullo stato presente di un concetto inattuale: la libertà’, Filosofia politica 6 (1992), 55–64

Petrucciani, Stefano, ‘Tre concetti di libertà’, Critica marxista 2 no. 1 (1992), 48–56

Racionero, Luis, ‘La Utopía: De Karl Mannheim a Isaiah Berlin’, Claves de razón práctica no. 22 (May 1992), 38–43

Sasaki, Fumiko, ‘The Views of Isaiah Berlin on Human Nature’, Aoyama SIPA Bulletin 1992

~ Skidelsky, Robert, John Maynard Keynes, vol. 2: The Economist as Saviour 1920–1937 (London, 1992: Macmillan), 427 only

Snauwaert, ‘Reclaiming the Lost Treasure: Deliberation and Strong Democratic Education’, Educational Theory 42 no. 3 (Summer 1992), 351–67 [API]

Tanaka Haruo, ‘Byoudou genri to kakusa genri: Berlin oyobi Rawls no. giron kara’ [‘The Equality Principle and the Difference Principle: A Comparative Study of I. Berlin and J. Rawls’], in Seikei hogaku [Journal of Law, Political Science and Humanities] no. 35 (1992), 219–42

Trincia, Francesco Saverio, ‘Apologia della libertà negativa’, Critica marxista 1992 no. 5, 65–77; repr. in id., Il governo della distanza (Milan, 2004: Franco Angeli), 21–40

Vejvoda, Ivan, ‘Pluralizam i sloboda’ (‘Pluralism and liberty’), afterword (pp. 301–6) to Serbo-Croat translation of Four Essays on Liberty: Isaija Berlin, Cetiri ogleda o slobodi, trans. Vesna Danilovic, Slavica Miletic, ‘Libertas’ series (Belgrade, 1992: Filip Visnjic)

~ Warnock, Mary, The Uses of Philsophy (Oxford, 1992: Blackwell)


Bok, Sissela, ‘What Basis for Morality? A Minimalist Approach’, Monist 76 no. 3 (July 1993), 349–59 [API]

~ Campus, Donatella, ‘Amartya Sen e il concetto di libertà’, Filosofia politica 7 (1993), 509–27

Cohen, Richard, ‘Endangered Species’, Washington Post, 27 June 1993, Magazine, 7

Coole, Diana, ‘Constructing and Deconstructing Liberty: A Feminist and Poststructuralist Analysis’, Political Studies 41 (1993), 83–95

Craiutu, Aurelian, ‘Isaiah Berlin sau elogiul pluralismului’ (‘Isaiah Berlin: In Praise of Pluralism’), Litere, arte & idei (Bucharest, Romania) no. 37 (122), 27 September 1993, 7–8

Craiutu, Aurelian, ‘Elogiul pluralismului’, introductory note to the Romanian translation of ‘In Pursuit of the Ideal’, in Sfera politicii [Bucharest, Romania] no. 6 (May 1993), 30 ff.

Dénes, Iván Zoltán, ‘Isaiah Berlin nacionalizmus-értelmezése elé’ [‘Introducing Isaiah Berlin’s interpretation of nationalism’], Magyar Tudomány 1993 no. 3, 1080–1

Díaz-Urmeneta Muñoz, Juan Bosco, ‘Isaiah Berlin y la pluralidad de fines’, Revista de estudios políticos no. 80 (April–June 1993), 247–71

Díaz-Urmeneta Muñoz, Juan Bosco, ‘Liberalismo y estética: las propuestas de Isaiah Berlin’, El urogallo no. 85 (June 1993), 20–5

Díaz-Urmeneta Muñoz, Juan Bosco, ‘Liberalismo y nacionalismo: las razones de Isaiah Berlin’, Sistema: Revista de ciencias sociales No 116 (September 1993), 31–48

Dubin, B., introduction to his Russian translation of ‘The Birth of the Russian Intelligentsia’ (from Russian Thinkers), Voprosi literaturi 1993 no. 6, 188–93

Gray, John, Post-Liberalism: Studies in Political Thought (New York and London, 1993: Routledge)

Gray, John, ‘Berlin’s Agonistic Liberalism’, chapter 6 in his Post-Liberalism: Studies in Political Thought (New York and London, 1993: Routledge), 64–9

§Gray, John, ‘What is Dead and What is Living in Liberalism’, chapter 20 in his Post-Liberalism: Studies in Political Thought (New York and London, 1993: Routledge), 283–328

Hardy, Henry, ‘The Compatibility of Incompatibles’, Independent, 20 February 1993, 33 [discusses pluralism, though not with explicit reference to IB]

§Kekes, John, The Morality of Pluralism (Princeton, New Jersey, 1993: Princeton University Press)

Kruzhkov, Grigory, ‘ “Ty opozdal na mnogop let ...”: Kto geroi “Poemy bez geroya”?’ [‘ “You are many years late ...”: Who is the hero of “Poem Wihout a Hero”?’], Novyi mir No 3, 1993, 216–26

Kukathas, Chandran, ‘Liberty’, in Robert E. Goodin and Philip Pettit (eds), A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy (Oxford, 1993: Blackwell), esp. pp. 534–8

§Lukes, Steven, review of John Kekes, The Morality of Pluralism, American Political Science Review 88 (1994), 739–40

§Mack, Eric, ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Quest for Liberal Pluralism’, Public Affairs Quarterly 7 no. 3 (July 1993), 215–30

§Mack, Eric, ‘The Limits of Diversity: The New Counter-Enlightenment and Isaiah Berlin’s Liberal Pluralism’, in Howard Dickman (ed.), The Imperiled Academy (New Brunswick, NJ, and London, 1993: Transaction), 97–126

Marcoaldi, Franco, ‘Isaiah Berlin: utopia della decenza’, in id., Voci rubate (Turin, 1993: Einaudi), 49–71

~ Mehta, Ved, Up at Oxford [part of the Continents of Exile series] (New York, 1993: Norton)

~ Miller, Cecilia, Giambattista Vico: Imagination and Historical Knowledge (Nw York, 1993: St Martin’s Press)

Nielsen, Kai, ‘Philosophy and Weltanschauung’, Journal of Value Inquiry 27 (1993), 179–86; discusses Isaiah Berlin and others (Anthony Quinton, Stuart Hampshire, Iris Murdoch), ‘Philosophy and Beliefs’, Twentieth Century 157 (1955), 495–521

~ Pera, Pia, ‘Il riccio e la volpe’, Leggere 6 (1993), 70–1

~ Pyke, Steve, Philosophers (Manchester,1993: Cornerhouse Publications; 2nd ed. London, 1995: Zelda Cheatle Press); contains photograph of IB

~ Rescher, Nicholas, Pluralism: Against the Demand of Consensus (Oxford, 1993: Clarendon Press)

Satpathy, S., ‘“A Tedious Argument of Insidious Intent”: T. S. Eliot’s Anti-Semitism Reconsidered’, New Quest 97 (January–February 1993), 17–22

~ Scarpelli, Uberto, ‘L’etica della libertà’, Bioetica 1 (1993), 9–23

~ Schochet, Gordon J. ‘Why Should History Matter? Political Theory and the History of Discourse’, in John G. A. Pocock and others (eds), The Varieties of British Political Thought, 1500–1800 (Cambridge, 1993: Cambridge University Press), 335 note 39 (an interesting reference to Two Concepts of Liberty)

~ Sen, Amartya, ‘Markets and Freedoms: Achievements and Limitations of the Market Mechanism in Promoting Individual Freedoms’, Oxford Economic Papers 45 (1993), 519–41: discusses IB at 524

Simhony, Avital, ‘Beyond Negative and Positive Freedom: T. H. Green’s View of Freedom’, Political Theory 21 (1993), 28–54

Tasker, Mary, and David Packham, ‘Industry and Higher Education: A Question of Values’, Studies in Higher Education 18 no. 2 (1993), 127–136

Trincia, Francesco Saverio, ‘Liberalismo e marxismo nella cultura anglosassone’, Iride 1994 no. 11, 109–25

West, David, ‘Spinoza on Positive Freedom’, Political Studies 41 (1993), 284–96 (reply by Berlin, ibid., 297–8)

~ Wilson, Edmund, The Sixties, ed. Lewis Dabney (New York, 1993: Farrar, Straus and Giroux)


~ Akenson, D. K., Conor: A Biography of Conor Cruise O’Brien (Montreal, 1994: McGill-Queen’s University Press), vol. 1, ix (an acknowledgement)

Allemang, John., ‘Why Isaiah Berlin matters’, The Globe and Mail [Toronto], [?26] November 1994, A18

Carr, Thomas K., ‘A Man of Our Time?’, First Things 44 (June/July 1994)

§Crowder, G., ‘Pluralism and Liberalism’, Political Studies 42 (1994), 293–305 (reply by IB and Bernard Williams, ibid., 306–9; and see Crowder 1996 below)

García Guitián, Elena, ‘Pluralismo, conflicto y nacionalismo: aproximación al pensamiento de I. Berlin’, Papeles 50 (1994), 39–47

Honnig, Bonnie, ‘Difference, Dilemmas and the Politics of Home’, Social Research 61 no. 4 (Fall 1994), 563–97

~ Judt, Tony, ‘The New Old Nationalism’, New York Review of Books, 26 May 1994, 44–51: discussion of books by Yael Tamir and Michael Ignatieff

~ §Kateb, George, ‘Notes on Pluralism’, Social Research 61 (1994), 511–37

§Katznelson, Ira, ‘A Properly Defended Liberalism: On John Gray and the Filling of Political Life’, Social Research 61 (1994), 611–30

§Kekes, John, ‘Pluralism and the Value of Life’, Social Philosophy and Policy 11 no. 1 (1994), 44–60

~ Kostyrchenko, G., V plenu u krasnogo faraona: politicheskie presledovaniya evreev v SSSR v poslednee stalinskoe desiatiletie: dokumentalnoe issledovanie [‘Imprisoned by the red pharaoh: political persecution of Jews in the USSR during Stalin’s last decade: documentary research’] (Moscow, 1994: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya), 331–2; IB dictated the following remarks on this passage in 1995:

After some lines about the fate of the physician who looked after V. M. Molotov’s wife, we get the following:

‘After several interrogations, Vinogradov “confessed” that M. B. Kogan, until he died of cancer on 26 November 1951, demanded from him information about the condition of the health and general situation in the families of Stalin and other administrators of the country, whose physician he was.

‘During the following years, according to the primitively invented interrogation, the function of the “curator” [think that means the person attached by the KGB to watch someone else] Vinogradov – in connection with a “secret order from London” – were assigned to Professor M. E. Pevzner, director of the clinic of Medical Diatetics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He, so it turned out, having gone on an official visit at the beginning of the 1930s to Carlsbad, there became involved in a net of spies ingeniously organised by his relative, a certain Mendel Berlin, an emigrant from Russia who had British nationality. According to the same retrospective scenario developed some time before in the Lyubanka [Centre of the Soviet secret police], the brother of M. Berlin, a Soviet citizen, Professor of Medicine L. B. Berlin, was soon made to penetrate Pevzner’s Clinic for the purpose of direct control over him, and also as a contact with a resident English spy-ring in Moscow. He begins to work in this section. This latter [Professor L. B. Berlin], having met, in December 1945, the son of his London brother Mendel, Isaiah, who arrived to work in Moscow as a Second Secretary of the British Embassy, arranges through him a regular method of sending secret information abroad. In this way the channel of the spy-ring, which contains, in its first stage, the following links of the chain – V. N. Vinogradov, M. B. Kogan, M. E. Pevzner, L. B. Berlin, Isaiah Berlin – begins to function as a channel of intelligence. After 1950, in connection with the death of M. B. Kogan, Vinogradov began direct contact with Pevzner. This was the more convenient because Pevzner was a member of the editorial committee of the journal Therapeutic Archive, the head of which was Vinogradov.

‘In order to prop up this elaborate piece of falsification, L. B. Berlin (the Professor of Diatetic Medicine) was returned on 10 December 1952 to Moscow from the Taishet camp. At the first interrogation, which lasted till 14 December, the interrogators Sokolov and Pantaleev, who accused him of concealing at his earlier interrogation his activity as a spy, said to him, quite openly, that they will use [a] measure of physical compulsion if he does not confess the passing of information received from Vinogradov to the nephew Isaiah at the British Embassy.

‘Berlin refused to “confess” such participation on his part and that of Vinogradov. Then he was taken to the private office of the head of the “inner” prison, where it was normal to beat prisoners for four days. However, this did not work, and consequently Berlin, who had suffered this frightful treatment with stoicism, was removed for a more thorough “working over” to the Lefortov prison. There he was subjected to such elaborate tortures that he made several attempts to commit suicide. After that, for several days his hands were manacled. In the end, the victim was “broken”, and forced to give the required evidence about collaboration with the British intelligence service, beginning from the moment when he was persuaded to join, in 1936, and ending with his arrest in 1952. Berlin was held in prison for one more year, and liberated on 4 February 1954, by order of the Minister of Internal Affairs, S. N. Kruglov.’

The rest of this page is concerned with other false accusations of spying, against various well-known and less-known persons, the list of whom is given. This, of course, is news to me. My father, Mendel Berlin, was a timber merchant who came to England from Riga in 1919, and did make one journey to the Soviet Union, in connection with timber export, in 1934 or 1935, when he did see his brother Lev Borisovich Berlin, the medical professor. Needless to say, he was not connected with intelligence in England or any other country, at any point of his life; nor was his unfortunate brother, the professor. I found myself in Moscow as a temporary First Secretary of the British Embassy in 1945, and did pay a visit – I now think very unwisely – to the flat in which two of my uncles (one of them the professor) were then living with their wives and children. There was only one such visit, but it became plain to me even then that this could only lead to trouble for them. I do not think that the rest of the family, which I visited, were actually arrested – of course, I do not know this for certain. But I did learn from my great friend, the famous poetess Anna Akhmatova, who followed the fortunes of my family in Moscow, that Professor Berlin was duly arrested in 1952 – as I thought, as part of the notorious Jewish Doctors’ Plot against Stalin and other Soviet leaders; I think they were accused of murdering the writer Maksim Gorky, who in fact died of TB. I did not, of course, know about the interrogations, tortures etc.; but I did know, from the same Akhmatova, that my uncle died in Moscow at liberty (there was a little obituary of him in the Moscow evening papers). I discovered from some of his near relations who emigrated to Israel two years ago (I am writing this in 1995), that when at liberty he was walking along a street in Moscow and, on the other side of the pavement, saw the man who had interrogated and tortured him: whereupon he had a heart attack and died in the street there and then. I have no idea who Vinogradov, or any of the other characters referred to, are, or were.

This seems to me a typical piece of KGB invention and falsification, from beginning to end. no. doubt the fact that I was a British official in Moscow was sufficient to identify me as an intelligence agent, since all foreign diplomats were regarded as such – at that [time], and indeed earlier and later times. My father died in ignorance of this entire story. Needless to add, I never worked for any intelligence organisation, British or any other, at any point in my life, and had no contact with any such bodies, when I was a British Embassy official during the war or at any other time. But I fear that the awful fate of my uncle L. B. Berlin must be directly connected with the fact that I was his nephew and had worked in the British Embassy in Moscow and was of Russian origin.

§Larmore, Charles E., ‘Pluralism and Reasonable Disagreement’, Social Philosophy and Policy 11 no. 1 (1994), 61–79

~ Legutko, Ryszard, ‘On Postmodern Liberal Conservatism’, Critical Review 8 no. 1 (Winter 1994), 1–22

Lukes, Steven, ‘The Singular and the Plural: On the Distinctive Liberalism of Isaiah Berlin’, Social Research 61 (1994), 687–718; Italian translation, ‘Il singolare e il plurale’, published as introduction to Isaiah Berlin, Tra la filosofia e la storia delle idee: intervista autobiografica, ed. Steven Lukes (Florence, 1994: Ponte alle Grazie)

Matamoro, Blas, ‘Isaiah Berlin, a vueltas con la historia’, Cuadernos hispanoamericanos no. 527 (May 1994), 35–44

~ Rees, Jenny, Looking for Mr Nobody: The Secret Life of Goronwy Rees (London, 1994: Weidenfeld & Nicolson)

Rogers, Ben, and others, ‘The Voice of Isaiah’, Independent on Sunday, 5 June 1994, Sunday Review, 30–1

Scheibe, Erhard, ‘The Divorce Between the Sciences and the Humanities’, in Georg Meggle and Ulla Wessels (eds), Analyomen 1 (Hawthorne, 1994: de Gruyter)

Schiff, Stephen, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, The New Yorker 6 June 1994, 68

Trincia, Francesco Saverio, ‘Liberalismo e marxismo nella cultura anglosassone’, Iride 11 (1994), 109–25


Beiner, Ronald (ed.), Theorizing Citizenship (Albany, 1995: SUNY Press), 64, 90

~ Bovero, Michelangelo, ‘Libertà’, in Angelo D’Orsi (ed.), Alla ricerca della politica: Voci per un dizionario (Turin, 1995: Bollati Boringhieri), 33–52

(Comay, Joan, and?) Lavinia Cohn-Sherbok ‘Berlin, Sir Isaiah’, in id., Who’s Who in Jewish History: After the Period of the Old Testament (1st ed. New York, 1974: D. McKay Co.), 2nd ed., revised by Lavinia Cohn-Sherbok (London, 1995: Routledge), 65; 61 in 2rd ed. (2002)

~ Cull, Nicholas John, Selling War: The British Propaganda Campaign against American ‘Neutrality’ in World War II (New York and Oxford, 1995: Oxford University Press)

Eroshok, Zoya, ‘Ser Isaiya: Gost’ iz budushchego’ (‘Sir Isaiah: The Guest from the Future’), Novaya ezhednevhaya gazeta, 10–16 August 1995, 1, 5

~ Cleemput, Geert Van, ‘Clarifying Nationalism, Chauvinism, and Ethnic Imperialism’, International Journal on World Peace 12 no. 1 (March 1995), 59–97 (cf. id., review of Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia, ibid. 11 no. 1 (March 1994), 81–8, and id., review of ? in ibid. 11 no. 3 (September 1994), 81–8)

Díaz-Urmeneta [Muñoz], Juan Bosco, ‘Isaiah Berlin: la música en el paraíso’ [‘Music in paradise’], El viejo topo no. 89 (October 1995), 69–73

Flores, Antonio Molina, ‘Isaiah Berlin: la sabiduría de la diferencia’ [‘Knowledge of difference’], El viejo topo no. 89 (October 1995), 65–8

Galasso, Giuseppe, ‘Dalla filosofia alla storia delle idee’, in Pietro Corsi (ed.), Isaiah Berlin: filosofo delle libertà ([Florence, 1995]: La Rivista dei Libri), 26–59

Geuss, Raymond, ‘Auffassungen der Freiheit’, Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 49 no. 1 (January–March 1995), 1–14

Geuss, Raymond and Hollis, Martin, ‘Freedom as an Ideal’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supplementary vol. 69 (1995), 87–112 [Hollis: API]

~ Gove, Michael, Michael Portillo: The Future of the Right (London, 1995: Fourth Estate), 313

Gray, John N., ‘Agonistic Liberalism’, Social Philosophy and Policy 12 no. 1 (1995), 111–35

Gray, John, ‘Constancy and Difference: Isaiah Berlin’s Contribution to the Life of the Mind’, English original of Dutch translation published in Nexus 12 (1995), 5–15

~ Gray, John, Enlightenment’s Wake: Politics and Culture at the Close of the Modern Age (London, 1995: Routledge)

Hardy, Henry, ‘Het ware pluralisme’ (Dutch translation of ‘Taking Pluralism Seriously’, published in its original English form in OM; a shortened version has also appeared), Nexus 1995 no. 13, 74–86

(in Russian translation) Hausheer, Roger, ‘Portrait of Isaiah Berlin’, in a Russian collection: Mikhail Parkhomovsky (ed.), Jews in the Culture of Russia Abroad: Articles, Memoirs, Publications and Essays, Volume IV, 1939–1960 (Jerusalem, 1995: M. Parkhomovsky) [written in response to the award of the Erasmus Prize: English original available]

Hunt, Ian, ‘A Note on Woolcock’s defence of Berlin on Positive and Negative Freedom’, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (1995), 465–71 [API]

Kawakami Fumio, ‘Berlin: tagenshugi ni okeru doutokuteki shutaisei to tayousei’ [‘Berlin: Moral Agency and Diversity in Pluralism’], in Y. Fujihara and S. Iijima (eds), Seiyou seiji shisoushi II [History of European Political Thought vol. 2] (Tokyo, 1995: Shinhyoron), 303–18

Leca, Jean, ‘Berlin’, in F. Chatelet, O. Duhamel and E. Pisier (eds), Dictionnaire des oeuvres politiques, 3rd ed. (Presses Universitaires de France, 1995); repr. with corrections as ‘Libéralisme, pluralisme et communitarianisme: actualité d’Isaiah Berlin’, Commentaire 18 no. 70 (Summer 1995), 369–82

Magidson, Svetlana, ‘ “Vstretimsya v adazhio Vival′di” ’ [‘ “We shall meet in Vivaldi’s adagio” ’], Argumenty i fakty, ArtFo (Mezhdunarodnoe izdanie) no. 14–15, 18 August 1995, 23

Margalit, Avishai, ‘The Philosopher of Sympathy: Isaiah Berlin and the Fate of Humanism’, New Republic, 20 February 1995, 31–7

Naiman, Anatoly, ‘Vot s kakoi tochki nuzhno smotret´ na predmet! Leonid Zykov, “Nikolay Punin – adresat i geroi liriki Anny Akhmatovoi”, Zvezda [1995] no. 1’ [‘What a way to look at it! Leonid Zykov, “Nikolay Punin – the addressee and hero of Anna Akhmatova’s poems”, Zvezda [1995] no. 1’], Segodnya, 10 March 1995, 10

Putnam, Hilary, ‘Pragmatism and Relativism: Universal Values and Traditional Ways of Life’, chapter 9 in id., Words and Life (Cambridge, Mass., 1995: Harvard University Press), 182–97; contains section on ‘Isaiah Berlin on Relativism’, 192–3; see also 184, 195

~ Rose, Richard, Freedom as a Fundamental Value (Studies in Public Policy Number 242) (Glasgow, 1995: Centre for the Study of Public Policy, University of Strathclyde)

~ Rowse, A. L., Historians I Have Known (London, 1995: Duckworth), 132, 140 (etc.?)

Sacks, Jonathan, ‘From Slavery to Freedom: The Journey of Faith’, The Tablet, 10 June 1995, 732–5

Santambrogio, Marco, ‘Isaiah Berlin, filosofo analitico e continentale’, in Pietro Corsi (ed.), Isaiah Berlin: filosofo delle libertà ([Florence, 1995]: La Rivista dei Libri)

Sasaki, Fumiko, ‘The United States and the Polish Problem: An Analysis of Weekly Political Summaries by Isaiah Berlin’, Ogaki Women’s College Bulletin 1995

~ Sugita Atsushi in Takeshi Sasaki and others, Seiyou seiji shisoushi [History of Western Political Thought] (Tokyo, 1995: Hokuju Shuppan), 184–6

~ Tamir, Yael, Liberal Nationalism (Princeton, 1995: Princeton University Press), 6, 13, 71–2, 98, 114–15

Walicki, Andrzej, ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin do Andrzeja Walickiego’ (letters from IB to AW, translated by Magda Pietrzak-Merta and Tomasz Merta, with comments by AW), Res Publica 82/83 (double issue, July/August 1995), 101–116

~ Wang Zuoliang, Zhonglouji [a reference to Wang’s apartment in Tsinghua University] (Shenyang, 1995: Liaoning Jiaoyu Chubanshe [Liaoning Educational Press]) contains two essays that mention IB: ‘Du Aidemeng Weierxun de shuxinji’ [‘Reading Edmund Wilson’s letters’] (23–33, IB at 29) and ‘Du Niujin suibi xuan’ [‘Reading The Oxford Book of Essays’] (34–7, IB at 36)

~ Weidenfeld, George, Remembering My Good Friends: An Autobiography (London, 1995: HarperCollins), 156–7, 184, 203, 210, 212, 226, 234, 243, 248, 251, 267, 331–2, 365, 381, 383, 414, 417, 440

Wicher, Andrzej, ‘In a World Where Ends Collide – Romantic Discrepancies in the Thought of Isaiah Berlin’, History of European Ideas 20 (1995), 375–81

Woolcock, Peter, ‘Hunt and Berlin on Positive and Negative Freedom’, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (1995), 458–64 [API]

Yesipov, Viktor, ‘ “Kak vremena Vespasiyana ...” (K probleme geroya v tvorchestve Anny Akhmatovoi 40–60-kh godov)’ [‘ “In the days of Vespasian ...” (On the problem of the hero in the work of Anna Akhmatova from her 40s to her 60s’], Voprosy literatury 1995 no. 6, 57–85; argues that the poems by Anna Akhmatova normally regarded as dedicated to IB (see PI) are not in fact so dedicated, and that IB does not in fact have a role as ‘the guest from the future’ in Poem Without a Hero

Zykov, Leonid, ‘Nikolay Punin – adresat i geroi liriki Anny Akhmatovoi’ [‘Nikolay Punin – the addressee and hero of Anna Akhmatova’s poems’], Zvezda 1995 no. 1, 77–103 (followed by ‘Iz perepiski A. A. Akhmatovoi i N. N. Punina’ [‘From the correspondence of A. A. Akhmatova and N. N. Punin’], ed. Leonid Zykov, 104–14); on 1 July 1997, shortly before his final illness began, IB dictated the following note to Henry Hardy about this article:

This article is by a man called Zykov, the husband of the granddaughter of Punin, AA’s third husband. The article, as you see, was written some years ago, and now Zykov, his wife Anya Kaminskaya and someone else have sent me this old article, with affectionate greetings, via one Matthew Altham, of New College (I do not know him). The article maintains that the references to me in AA’s poem, and especially in Poem Without a Hero (The Guest from the Future) are, for the most part – they do not quite say entirely – in fact references to Punin, who died in a Siberian camp (I think in the 1970s) – with whom a very intimate, loving correspondence with AA is printed in the same issue. The thesis is that it was the critics, led by the great Zhirmunsky and supported by virtually everyone else, who invented me as the addressee of the relevant poems. Zhirmunsky came to see me in Oxford some years ago (he was getting an Honorary Degree) and gave me the full list of poems relevant to me – on, he said, the direct request of AA. The apparatus is enormous, and I think the intentions are sincere. no. clear reason is given about why the true addressee is Punin, for whom I act as a ‘mask’. They do not think this is my fault, but that the critics, for no. known reason, invented me as the addressee.

IB also wrote a long letter about the article to Matthew Altham, dated 3 July.


~ Aarsleff, Hans, ‘Facts, Fiction, and Opinion in the History of Linguistics: Language and Thought in the 17th & 18th Centuries’, in Lisa McNair and others (eds), Papers from the Parasession on Theory and Data in Linguistics (Chicago, 1996: Chicago Linguistic Society [CLS 32]), 1–11 (discusses IB’s view of Herder at one remove, via Charles Taylor)

~ Aarsleff, Hans, ‘Herder’s Cartesian Ursprung vs. Condillac’s Expressivist Essai’, in D. Gambarara, S. Gensini and A. Pennisi (eds), Language Philosophies and the Language Sciences (Munster, 1996: Nodus), 165–79 (discusses IB’s view of Herder at one remove, via Charles Taylor)

Archard, David (ed.), Philosophy and Pluralism (Cambridge, 1996: Cambridge University Press)

Blattberg, Charles, ‘An Exchange with Isaiah Berlin’

Brantingham, Philip, ‘Words on the Wise from Isaiah Berlin’, Modern Age 38 no. 3 (1996), 290–4

~ Carpenter, Humphrey (with research by Jennifer Doctor), The Envy of the World: Fifty Years of the BBC Third Programme and Radio 3, 1946–1996 (London, 1996: Weidenfeld and Nicolson)

~ Carter, Ian, and Mario Ricciardi (eds), L’idea di libertà (Milan, 1996: Feltrinelli); see introduction, 5–18, and bibliography, 185–92

§Crowder, George, ‘Isaiah Berlin and Bernard Williams, “Pluralism and Liberalism: A Reply” ’ [see Crowder 1994 above], Political Studies 44 (1996), 649–51

Dworkin, Ronald, Freedom’s Law (New York, 1996: Oxford University Press), esp. 214–17

Gray, John, ‘Oakeshott, Berlin, and Enlightenment’, Common Knowledge 5 no. 1 (Spring 1996), 109–20; repr. as ‘Berlin, Oakeshott and Enlightenment’ in id., Endgames (Cambridge etc., 1997: Polity Press)

Gutmann, Amy, ‘How Limited is Liberal Government?’, in Bernard Yack (ed.), Liberalism without Illusions: Essays on Liberal Theory and the Political Vision of Judith N. Shklar (Chicago, 1996: University of Chicago Press)

~ Hansen, Mogens Herman, ‘The Ancient Athenian and the Modern Liberal View of Liberty as a Democratic Ideal’, in Josiah Ober and Charles Hedrick (eds), Demokratia: A Conversation on Democracies, Ancient and Modern (Princeton, 1996: Princeton University Press), 91–104 (refs to IB at 94 and 96); repr. in Eric W. Robinson (ed.), Ancient Greek Democracy: Readings and Sources (Oxford, 2004: Blackwell); John Lewis writes in a review of the latter version in the online Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 22 December 2003, that ‘Hansen’s seven uses of eleutheria and eleutheros are contextualised with the positive and negative senses of freedom in Isaiah Berlin and Benjamin Constant (pp. 173–5). This demonstrates the complexity involved in grasping abstract political concepts, and provides a warning not to take a correspondence between the ancient and the modern for granted.’ There also two passing refs to IB elsewhere in the Ober and Hedrick volume: 111 note 9, 324 note 24.

Harris, Ian, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Two Concepts of Liberty’, in Murray Forsyth and Maurice Keens-Soper (eds), The Political Classics: Green to Dworkin (Oxford and New York, 1996: Oxford University Press)

Hirschmann, Nancy J., ‘Toward a Feminist Theory of Freedom’, Political Theory 24 (1996), 46–67 (esp. 48–50)

Jahanbegloo, Ramin, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Libertés – L’action et le discours politique pupposent un éspace ou les opinions humaines peuvent entrer en conflit et se referer à une constellation de valeurs’, Études 384 no. 1 (1996), 57–66

~ Katznelson, Ira, Liberalism’s Crooked Circle: Letters to Adam Michnik (Princeton, 1996: Princeton University Press)

~ Lankford, Nelson D., The Last American Aristocrat: The Biography of David K. E. Bruce, 1898–1977 (Boston, Mass., 1996: Little, Brown)

~ Maffettone, Sebastiano, ‘Fondamenti filosofici del liberalismo’, in Ronald Dworkin and Sebastiano Maffettone, I fondamenti filosofici del liberalismo (Bari, 1996: Laterza), 123–254

Morimoto Tetsuo, ‘Berlin oyobi Raphael no. “sekkyokuteki” aruiha “kannenronteki” jiyūron’ [‘Berlin and Raphael’s Theory of ‘Positive’ or ‘Idealistic’ Freedom’], in K. Kashiwagi and others (eds), Seijishisou no. shosou: Takeharu Yoshibumi sensei tsuitou kinen ronbunshu [Aspects of Modern Political Thought: In Memory of the Late Professor Yoshibumi Takaharu] (Tokyo, 1996: Ochanomizu Shobo), 233–52

Simonovic, Ifigeniya, ‘O Isaiahu Berlinu’, Nova Revija No 176 (December 1996), 100–107 (Slovenian)

~ McKnight, C. J., ‘Pluralism, Realism and Truth’, in David Archard (ed.), Philosophy and Pluralism (Cambridge, 1996: Cambridge University Press)

~ Mendus, Susan, ‘Tragedy, Moral Conflict, and Liberalism’, in David Archard (ed.), Philosophy and Pluralism (Cambridge, 1996: Cambridge University Press)

~ Parekh, Bhikhu, ‘Moral Philosophy and Its Anti-Pluralist Bias’, in David Archard (ed.), Philosophy and Pluralism (Cambridge, 1996: Cambridge University Press)

~ Rawls, John, Political Liberalism (New York, 1996: Columbia University Press)

Slater, Elinor, and Slater, Robert, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Intellectual Giant’, in Great Jewish Men (New York, 1996: Jonathan David Publishers)

Solcan, Mihail Radu, Preface to Patru eseuri despre libertate, Romanian translation of Four Essays on Liberty (?, 1996: Central European University Press)

~ Szasz, Thomas, The Meaning of Mind: Language, Morality, and Neuroscience (Westport, Conn., and London, 1996: Praeger), 43–4, 90

Verri, Antonio, ‘Isaiah Berlin e il pluralismo di valori’, in Pasquale Venditti (ed.), Filosofia e storia: studi in onore di Pasquale Salvucci (Urbino, 1996: QuattroVenti), 557–73

Watanabe, Mikio, ‘Berlin to Hayek’ [‘Berlin and Hayek’], in Mikio Watanabe, Hayek to gendai jiyūsyugi: ‘anti gourishugi liberalizumu’ no. keifu [Hayek and the Modern Liberalism: Some Aspects of ‘Anti-Rationalist Liberalism’] (Tokyo, 1996: Shunjusha) 243–281


anon., ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin, Sower of Ideas’, Economist, 21 November 1997, 133

Blokland, Hans, ‘Isaiah Berlin on Positive and Negative Freedom’, chapter 2 in id., Freedom and Culture in Western Society, trans. Michael O’Loughlin (London and New York, 1997); there is also discussion of IB in other chapters (see index)

Bo[setti], G[ian]c[arlo], ‘Il mare profondo del “secondo livello” ’, Reset no. 41 (October 1997), 24

~ Brewer, Susan A., To Win the Peace: British Propaganda in the United States during World War II (Ithaca and London, 1997: Cornell University Press)

~ Crisp, Roger, Mill on Utilitarianism (London, 1997: Routledge), 198

Crowder. George, ‘Value Pluralism, Liberalism and Communitarianism’, in G. Crowder and others (eds), Australasian Political Studies 1997: Proceedings of the 1997 APSA Conference (Adelaide, 1997: Department of Politics, Flinders University), 251–62

Díaz-Urmeneta Muñoz, Juan Bosco, ‘Isaiah Berlin, la Ilustración y el fenómeno romántico’, introduction to the Spanish translation of The Magus of the North: Isaiah Berlin, El mago del norte: J. G. Hamann y el origen del irracionalismo moderno, trans. Juan Bosco Diaz-Urmeneta Muñoz (Madrid, 1997: Tecnos), 9–33

~ Ferguson, Nial (ed.), Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals (London, 1997: Picador); the book as a whole, especially Ferguson’s introduction, is generally relevant to some of the themes discussed by IB in ‘The Sense of Reality’ and his other essays in the philosophy of history

French, Sean, ‘Forget hard work, what you really need to succeed at university is a good pedigree. At the very least you’ll keep Isaiah Berlin amused’, New Statesman 3 October 1997 [spiteful and out of date]

§Friedman, Jeffrey, ‘Pluralism or Relativism?’, Critical Review 11 no. 4 (Fall 1997), 469–80

~ Friedman, Jeffrey, ‘What’s Wrong with Libertarianism?’, Critical Review 11 no. 3 (Summer 1997), 407–67: 462 note 7

Furbank, P. N., ‘On Pluralism’, Raritan 17 no. 1 (Summer 1997), 83–95

§Galston, William A., ‘Value Pluralism and Political Liberalism’, in João Carlos Espada (ed.), Liberdade, virtude e interesse próprio (Mem Martins[?], 1997: Publicações Europa-América), 53–67

Garrard, Graeme, ‘The Counter-Enlightenment Liberalism of Isaiah Berlin’, Journal of Political Ideologies 2 (1997), 281–96

~ Graham, Katharine, Personal History (New York, 1997: Knopf)

Hardy, Henry, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Four Essays on Liberty, ‘Speaking Volumes’ series, Times Higher Education Supplement, 21 November 1997, 21

Hardy, Henry, obituary, Independent, 7 November 1997; repr. as ‘Isaiah Berlin: A Personal Impression’ in various places

Hitchens, Christopher, ‘Goodbye to Berlin’, Nation, 19 November 1997, 10

Ignatieff, Michael, Hampshire, Stuart, Brendel, Alfred, and Kelly, Aileen, ‘On Isaiah Berlin, 1909–1997’, New York Review of Books, 18 December 1997, 10–12

Ivison, Duncan, The Self at Liberty (Ithaca, NY, and London, 1997: Cornell University Press), passim

Jeffries, Stuart, ‘A Prophet with Honour’, Guardian, 10 February 1997, G2, 8–9

~ Kekes, John, Against Liberalism (Ithaca, 1997: Cornell University Press), 7, 12, 94, 159–60, 171, 216–18, 220, 227, 228

La Porta, Lelio, Filosofia politica del ’900: Arendt, Berlin, Strauss (Florence, 1997: La Nuova Italia)

Margalit, Avishai, ‘The Moral Psychology of Nationalism’, in Robert McKim and Jeff McMahan (eds), The Morality of Nationalism (New York and Oxford, 1997: Oxford University Press); an elaboration of IB on nationalism

Massarenti, Armando, ‘Il secolo di Berlin’ Il sole ventiquattrore, 14 December 1997

Massarenti, Armando, ‘Libertà è riconoscere che i valori sono tanti’ Il sole ventiquattrore, 7 November 1997

§Mehta, Pratap B., ‘Pluralism after Liberalism?’ [review essay on John Gray’s work], Critical Review 11 no. 4 (Fall 1997), 503–18

Page, R., ‘Against Uniformity: Isaiah Berlin, 1909–1997’, New Humanist 112 no. 4 (1997), 2–3

Pettit, Philip, Republicanism (Oxford, 1997: Clarendon Press), 17–18, 21–22, 27

~ Purdy, Jedediah S., ‘The Libertarian Conceit’, American Prospect no. 35 (November–December 1997), 87–92

Qian Yongxiang/Sechin Y.-S. Chien, ‘Jinian Bolinzhisi’ [‘In Memory of Isaiah Berlin’], Nanfan Zhoumo [South Weekend], 28 November 1997

Qian, a scholar at Academia Sinica in Taiwan, summarises IB’s study of intellectual history as exhibibiting three features: (1) he was not a systematic thinker; (2) his subjects are very diverse and most of his works are essays; (3) his opinions are mainly critical, not constructive. Perhaps because Qian specialised in Max Weber, he maintains that IB’s pluralism was very similar to Weber’s thinking, and wonders why IB mentioned Weber – and Nietzsche – so rarely. IB’s lifelong task was the critique of monism; his profound intellectual world was never irrelevant to people living in the East (and was a great inspiration to Chinese readers); and he was not a normal academic thinker, but a member of the intelligentsia. He made a great humanistic contribution to our understanding of the human condition, and his death was a loss for the world.

Sacks, Jonathan, The Politics of Hope (London, 1997: Cape), esp. 33–5, 47, 113, 121, 243

Said, Edward, ‘Isaiah Berlin: An Afterthought’, Al-Hayat and Al-Khaleej, 9 December 1997; Al-Ahram Weekly, 11 December 1997; repr. in The End of the Peace Process: Oslo and After, 2nd ed. (London, 2002: Granta Books), 216–22

Sasaki, Fumiko, ‘The United States and the Polish Problem: An Analysis of Weekly Political Summaries by Isaiah Berlin (2)’, Ogaki Women’s College Bulletin 1997

Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Great Man in a Grim Time’, Newsweek 129 no. 46 (1997), 55

Steinberg, Jonny, ‘The Burdens of Berlin’s Modernity’, History of European Ideas 22 (1996), 369–83

Tallis, Raymond, Enemies of Hope: A Critique of Contemporary Pessimism: Irrationalism, Anti-Humanism and Counter-Enlightenment (Basingstoke and London, 1997: Macmillan; New York, 1997: St Martin’s Press; revised reprint 1999)

Turumi Shunsuke, Kitai to kaiso [Expectations and Recollections] (Tokyo, 1997: Shobunsha): TS, who studied pragmatism at Harvard under Quine, admires IB, a stronger influence on him (among British philosophers) than Austin, because of IB’s style

Upton, S., ‘Isaiah Berlin as Anti-Rationalist’, Philosophy and Literature 21 no. 2 (1997), 426–32

~ Veca, Salvatore, Dell’incertezza (Milan, 1997: Feltrinelli), 130–6

Veca, Salvatore, ‘Il pluralismo secondo Sir Isaiah’, Reset No 41 (October 1997), 34–5

Verma, V., ‘Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997)’, Economic and Political Weekly 32 no. 48 (1997), 3053

~ Vincent, Andrew (ed.), Political Theory (Cambridge, 1997: Cambridge University Press), 13–14, 134, 196

Wieseltier, Leon, ‘ “When a Sage Dies, All are his Kin”: Isaiah Berlin, 1909–1997’, New Republic 1997 no. 4324, 27–31

~ Zakaria, Fareed, ‘The Rise of Illiberal Democracy’, Foreign Affairs 76 no. 6 (November/December 1997), 22–43 (ref. on 26)

Zhu Xueqin, Bolin quyi [Goodbye to Berlin], Nanfan Zhoumo [South Weekend], 28 November 1997

Zhu Xueqin is a leading liberal Chinese scholar from Shanghai. He was lecturing in Zhengzhou, the capital of Henan Province, when, on 8 November 1997, Qian Yongxiang/Sechin Y.-S. Chien called him and told him the news of IB’s death. In his obituary Zhu recalled that in the 1980s IB’s Four Essays on Liberty and Russian Thinkers were very popular in China’s universities, and that this was the first time his generation learned from English political thought. He and his contemporaries were strongly influenced by Hayek as well as by IB. For his generation, apart from IB’s studies of Russian thinkers, the distinction between positive and negative liberty was the most important idea. He wanted to ask IB one question: How could one change a country like Russia from the bad ‘positive liberty’ to the good ‘negative liberty’? The best memorial to IB might be to respect his awareness of the issues, to reveal his concrete context, and to use his thoughts creatively in different contexts.


~ Amory, Mark, Lord Berners: The Last Eccentric (London, 1998: Chatto and Windus), esp. 183–4

Baldini, Enzo, ‘Berlin e Machiavelli’, Il Pensiero Politico 31 (1998), 124–9

Billington, James H., contribution to ‘An American Remembrance’ of Isaiah Berlin held at the British Embassy in Washington on 28 January 1998; repr. as one of three biographical memoirs of IB in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 150 no. 4 (December 2006), 663–72, at 664–6

~ Capaldi, Nicholas, The Enlightenment Project and Analytical Conversation (Kluer, 1998), scattered references

Crittenden, Brian, ‘Interpreting Multiculturalism: Does Berlin’s Theory of Cultural Pluralism Help?’, Newsletter (of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia) 17 no. 2 (1998), 30–7

§Crowder, George, ‘From Value Pluralism to Liberalism’, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 1 no. 3 (1998) (‘Pluralism and Liberal Neutrality’) [= Richard Bellamy and Martin Hollis (eds), Pluralism and Liberal Neutrality (London, 1999: Frank Cass)], 2–18; repr. as ‘From Pluralism to Liberalism’ in R. Bellamy and M. Hollis (eds), Pluralism and Liberal Neutrality (London, 1999: Frank Cass)

§Crowder, George, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Liberty, Pluralism and Liberalism’, in A. Bianchini, J. Dolby and M. Holland (eds), Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Australasian Political Studies Association and European Union Studies Association of New Zealand (Christchurch, 1998: APSA/EUS/ANZ), vol. 1: refereed papers, 198–208

§Crowder, George, ‘John Gray’s Pluralist Critique of Liberalism’, Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (1998), 287–98

Dawidoff, Nicholas, ‘Shura and Shaya: An Afternoon with Sir Isaiah Berlin’, The American Scholar 67 no. 2 (1998), 101–4

Dynin, B[oris] S., ‘Stikhi svidetelyu (pamyati Isay Berlina)’ [Verses of a witness (in memory of Isaiah Berlin)], Exodus (Jewish Russian Community Centre of Canada, Toronto) 2 no. 176 (February 1998), 22–3; repr. in Voprosy filosofii 1999 no. 5, 86–90

§Dzur, Albert W., ‘Value Pluralism versus Political Liberalism?, Social Theory and Practice 24 no. 3 (September 1998), 375–92

~ Foner, Eric, The Story of American Freedom (New York and London, 1998: Norton), xiv, 261

Frisch, Morton J., ‘A Critical Appraisal of Isaiah Berlin’s Philosophy of Pluralism’, Review of Politics 60 (1998), 421–33

~ Garton Ash, Timothy, ‘Europe’s Endangered Liberal Order’, Foreign Affairs 77 no. 2 (March/April 1998), 51–65 (refs on 51, 63)

Graham, Kay, contribution to ‘An American Remembrance’ of Isaiah Berlin held at the British Embassy in Washington on 28 January 1998

§Gray, John, ‘Where Liberals and Pluralists Part Company’, International Journal of Moral and Political Studies 6 no. 1 (1998), 17–36

García Guitián, Elena, ‘I. Berlin: De la Filosofía a la Historia de las Ideas’, Revista de Libros 13 (January 1998), 15–17

Gu Xin, ‘Bolin yu ziyou minzuzhuyi sixiang’ (‘Berlin and Liberal Nationalism’), in Liu Junning and Wang Yan (eds), Zhijie minzhu yu jianjie minzhu [Direct Democracy and Representative Democracy] (Beijing, 1998: SDX Joint Publishing Company; Gonggong luncong [Res Publica] series no. 5), 227–42

The Chinese scholar Guxin (now [2012] professor at Peking University, then a fellow at Singapore National University) introduces and discusses IB’s liberal nationalism. Is liberal nationalism possible? Before discussing this issue, Gu introduces the two cornerstones of IB’s philosophy: liberty and pluralism of values. IB’s classic essay ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’ is very important for the Chinese reader because the concept of liberty has always been misunderstood in China, even in ancient times, and there has been scarcely any Chinese thinker who treated discussed negative liberty in the way that IB did. China has almost no. such tradition.

If the need to belong clashes with individual liberty, IB would side with individual liberty. IB’s writing on Zionism displays the communitarian element in his thought. It is a matter of regret that IB never talked about national self-determination systematically. Should all nations erect their own States? In what sort of regime can liberalism and nationalism best coexist? IB never answered such questions straightforwardly. Multiculturalism, especially liberal multiculturalism (e.g. Kymlicka’s), may give more answers than IB.

Hommage à Isaiah Berlin [Világosság [Light] 39 (1998), 5–6], a special double issue of the journal, devoted entirely to IB:

~ Jenkins, Roy, ‘Isaiah Berlin – An Address’, Oxford Magazine No 156 (Trinity Term 1998, Eighth Week), 5

~ Judt, Tony, The Burden of Responsibility: Blum, Camus, Aron, and the French Twentieth Century (Chicago/London, 1998: University of Chicago Press)

Kane, R., The Significance of Free Will (Oxford, 1998: Oxford University Press)

Kawai, Hidekazu, ‘Tsuitou Isaiah Berlin’ [‘Isaiah Berlin: in Memoriam’], Misuzu no. 433 (1998), 30–31

Kelly, Aileen, Toward Another Shore (New Haven and London, 1998: Yale University Press), introduction and chapter 1

Knei-Paz, Baruch, ‘Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997): Obituary for St Antony’s College, Oxford’, St Antony’s College Record 1998, 117–121

Liu Junning and Wang Yan (eds), Preface to Zhijie minzhu yu jianjie minzhu [Direct Democracy and Representative Democracy] (Beijing, 1998: SDX Joint Publishing Company; Gonggong luncong [Res Publica] series no. 5), 1–8

The editors praise IB for his vivid descriptions of Russian thinkers, showing us their suffering and dilemmas, caught between tradition and modernity. RT clears away prejudice against these thinkers, and teaches us how to study intellectual history. Chinese readers looking to this book to explain liberalism will find their sympathy for it deepened.

The choice of ‘Direct Democracy and Representative Democracy’ as the title reflects IB’s distinction between two concepts of liberty. The editors prefer representative democracy, criticising Charles Taylor’s communitarianism.

For IB, humanistic individualism and romantic nationalism are the two main currents of twentieth-century political thought. IB’s interview with Nathan Gardels, included in the book, seems to exhibit a communitarian or nationalistic IB. But if we read carefully, IB’s nationalism is different from communitarianism. Although he supports value pluralism and cultural diversity, he also insists on the importance of individual freedom within a communitarian context, as opposed to a communitarianism that erases individuality. The upshot is his liberal nationalism.

Although IB hardly mentioned East Asia, his political philosophy does apply to the Chinese experience in the twentieth century, especially when he criticises the abstract ideas which can lead to great disasters. Sympathy for Russia never left IB: after the Second World War it was worry about the destiny of liberty that led him to give up analytic philosophy for the study of political theory, the editors claim – he had learned from the Russian thinkers that when justice is fighting injustice, intellectuals cannot behave as neutral observers, but must take up arms. This is why IB became a sage of the last century. In this sense he is an heir to the nineteenth-century Russian thinkers.

~ Lilla, Mark, ‘Very Much a Fox’, review of Judith Shklar, Political Thought and Political Thinkers, ed. Stanley Hoffmann (Chicago, 1998: University of Chicago Press), and Redeeming American Political Thought, ed. Stanley Hoffmann and Dennis F. Thompson (Chicago, 1998: University of Chicago Press), Times Literary Supplement, 27 March 1998, 6–8

Loewe, Raphael, ‘In Memoriam: Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM, CBE, MA, FBA (1909–1997)’, in Jewish Historical Studies: Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 35 (1996–8), xvi–xviii

§Lukes, Steven, ‘Berlin’s Dilemma’, Times Literary Supplement, 27 March 1998, 8–10

McCabe, David, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Understanding, Not Mastery’, Commonweal, 14 August 1998, 16–17

Massarenti, Armando, contribution to ‘[Su?] Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997)’, La Rivista dei Libri 8 no. 1 (January 1998), 4–5

~ Mehta, Ved, Remembering Mr Shawns New Yorker: The Invisible Art of Editing [part of the Continents of Exile series] (Woodstock, New York, 1998: Overlook Press)

O’Gorman, Ned, ‘My Dinners with Isaiah: The Music of a Philosopher’s Life’ , Commonweal, 14 August 1998, 15–16

Pompa, Leon, ‘Isaiah Berlin: 1909–1997’, New Vico Studies 16 (1998), 129–36

Raphael, Frederic, ‘Berlin Revisited’, Jewish Quarterly 45 no. 1 (Spring 1998), 11–17

Ricciardi, Mario, ‘La filosofia della libertà di Isaiah Berlin’, Iride 23 (January–April 1998), 119–29; repr. as ‘Postfazione’ to Isaiah Berlin, Due concetti di libertà (Milan, 2000: Feltrinelli), 79–105

~ Riley, Jonathan, Mill on Liberty (London, 1998: Routledge), 33, 153, 170

Rothschild, Miriam, Isaiah Berlin (privately printed pamphlet, 1998)

§Ryan, Alan, ‘Mill in a Liberal Landscape’, in John Skorupski (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Mill (Cambridge, 1998: Cambridge University Press), 497–540

Ryan, Alan, ‘Our Isaiah’, Oxford Today 10 no. 2 (Hilary Term 1998), 6–8

Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr, contribution to ‘An American Remembrance’ of Isaiah Berlin held at the British Embassy in Washington on 28 January 1998; repr. as one of three biographical memoirs of IB in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 150 no. 4 (December 2006), 663–72, at 667–9

Shaitanov, Igor, ‘Russkii opit i evropeiskii liberalizm’ (‘The Russian Experience and European Liberalism’: includes translations of extracts from ‘Joseph de Maistre and the Origins of Fascism’), Pushkin no. 4 (January–February [1998]), 50–4

~ Shklar, Judith, ‘Positive Liberty, Negative Liberty in the United States’, in her Redeeming American Political Thought, ed. Stanley Hoffmann and Dennis F. Thompson (Chicago, 1998: University of Chicago Press), 111–126

Silvers, Robert, contribution to ‘An American Remembrance’ of Isaiah Berlin held at the British Embassy in Washington on 28 January 1998; repr. in BI; trans. Italian

~ Tamir, Yael, ‘A Strange Alliance: Isaiah Berlin and the Liberalism of the Fringes’, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 No 2 [Will Kymlicka (ed.), Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Liberal Democracy ], 279–89

Taylor, Charles, contribution to ‘An American Remembrance’ of Isaiah Berlin held at the British Embassy in Washington on 28 January 1998

~ Townshend, Charles, ‘The Meaning of Irish Freedom: Constitutionalism in the Free State’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 8 (1998), 45–70 at 58

Tredell, N., ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin’, PN Review 24 no. 5 (1998), 8–9

Tsutsumibayashi Ken, ‘Jiyū no. paradokkusu: Rousseau, Constant and Berlin’ [‘The Paradox of Liberty: Rousseau, Constant and Berlin’], Sisou no. 883 (1998), 57–78

Tsutsumibayashi Ken, ‘Nasyonarizumu no. mondai: I. Berlin to C. Taylor no. shiten kara’[‘The Problems of Nationalism: From the Perspectives of I. Berlin and C. Taylor’], in S. Sumi and H. Kageyama (eds), Kindai kokka no. saikentou: Keio gijyuku daigaku hogakubu seijigakka hyakunen kinen ronbunshu [The Reconsideration of the Modern State] (Tokyo, 1998: Keio University Press), 67–92

~ Veca, Salvatore, La filosofia politica (Bari, 1998: Laterza)

Veca, Salvatore, ‘Elogio dell’imperfezione’, in id., Della lealtà civile (Milan, 1998: Feltrinelli), 20

Wieseltier, Leon, contribution to ‘An American Remembrance’ of Isaiah Berlin held at the British Embassy in Washington on 28 January 1998

Wieseltier, Leon, ‘La Parentela de Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997)’, Vuelta 21 no. 255 (1998), 32–7 (probably a translation of Wieseltier 1997?)

Williams, Bernard, ‘Berlin, Isaiah (1909–97)’, in Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (London and New York, 1998: Routledge), vol. 1, 750–3

Wokler, Robert, ‘Isaiah Berlin: A Commemoration’, presented as a celebratory lecture at the Harvard Club in New York on 2 June 1998; repr. in part as one of three biographical memoirs of IB in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 150 no. 4 (December 2006), 663–72, at 669–72

Woolcock, Peter, ‘Freedom and False Consciousness’, chapter 3 of id., Power, Impartiality and Justice (London, 1998: Ashgate)

Yamashita, Shigekazu, ‘Berlin ni okeru jiyūron to kachitagenron’ [‘Isaiah Berlin on Liberty and Value Pluralism’], in Kokugakuin hogaku [Kokugakuin Journal of Law and Politics], 36 no. 3 (1998), 225–73, 36 no. 4 (1999), 101–42; repr. in Shuzaburo Izumiya (ed.), J. S. Mill to I. Berlin no. Seijishiso [The Political Thought of J. S. Mill and I. Berlin] (Tokyo, 2016: Ochanomizu Shobo)


Annan, Noel, ‘The Don as Magus – Isaiah Berlin’, in The Dons: Mentors, Eccentrics and Geniuses (London, 1999: HarperCollins), 209–32

Annan, Noel, ‘Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997)’, Annual Review of Political Science 2 (1999), 363–7; repr. in BI

~ Barberis, Mauro, Libertà (Bologna, 1999: Il mulino)

~ Barry, Brian, ‘The Study of Politics as a Vocation’, in Jack Hayward, Brian Barry and Archie Brown (eds), The British Study of Politics in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999: Oxford University Press/The British Academy)

~ Bellamy, Richard, Liberalism and Pluralism: Towards a Politics of Compromise (London and New York, 1999: Routledge)

§Blokland, Hans, ‘Berlin on Pluralism and Liberalism: A Defence’, European Legacy 4 no. 4 (1999), 1–23

Buruma, Ian, Voltaire’s Coconuts (London, 1999: Weidenfeld & Nicolson)

~ Carr, Raymond, ‘A Living Oxymoron’, review of Ben Rogers, A. J. Ayer: A Life, Spectator, 5 June 1999, 34

Carter, Ian, A Measure of Freedom (Oxford, 1999: Oxford University Press)

~ Chandavarkar, A., ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin, 1909–97: A Dissent on Dissents’, Economic and Political Weekly 34 no. 49 (1999), 3425–9

Cherniss, Joshua, ‘No Straight Thing: Isaiah Berlin and The Roots of Romanticism’, Yale Journal of Ethics 7 no. 2 (Spring 1999), 24–30

~ Cherniss, Joshua, ‘Giving Virtue its Due: Peter Berkowitz on the Structure and Spirit of Liberalism’, Yale Journal of Ethics 8 no. 1 (December 1999), 23–38; cf. id., ‘ “Eternal Hostility?”: Religion, Liberalism, and Virtue’, ibid., 67–76

§Crowder, George, and Griffiths, Martin, ‘Postmodernism and International Relations Theory: A Liberal Response’, in John Brookfield and others (eds), Proceedings of the 1999 Conference of the Australasian Political Studies Association, vol. 1, Refereed Papers ANSOUR-GUO ([Sydney], 1999: Department of Government, University of Sydney), 135–45

Dabney, Lewis, ‘Isaiah Berlin on Edmund Wilson’, Wilson Quarterly 23 no. 1 (1999), 38–49

Dynin, B. S., ‘Stikhi svidetelyu (pamyati Isaiyi Berlina)’ [Verses to a witness (to the memory of Isaiah Berlin)], Voprosy filosofii 1999 no. 5, 86–98

Emerson, Caryl, ‘Isaiah Berlin and Mikhail Bakhtin: Relativistic Affiliations’, Symploke 7 nos 1–2 (1999), 139–64

Fleischacker, Samuel, A Third Concept of Liberty (Princeton, 1999: Princeton University Press); writes:

Taking the title of his book from Isaiah Berlin’s famous essay distinguishing a negative concept of liberty connoting lack of interference by others from a positive concept involving participation in the political realm, Samuel Fleischacker explores a third definition of liberty that lies between the first two. In Fleischacker’s view, Kant and Adam Smith think of liberty as a matter of acting on our capacity for judgement, thereby differing both from those who tie it to the satisfaction of our desires and those who translate it as action in accordance with reason or ‘will’. Integrating the thought of Kant and Smith, and developing his own stand through readings of the Critique of Judgement and The Wealth of Nations, Fleischacker shows how different acting on one’s best judgement is from acting on one’s desires – how, in particular, good judgement, as opposed to mere desire, can flourish only in favourable social and political conditions. At the same time, exercising judgement is something every individual must do for him- or herself, hence not something that philosophers and politicians who reason better than the rest of us can do in our stead.

For this reason advocates of a liberty based on judgement are likely to be more concerned than are libertarians to make sure that government provides people with conditions for the use of their liberty – for example, excellent standards of education, health care, and unemployment insurance – while at the same time promoting a less paternalistic view of government than most of the movements associated for the past thirty years with the political left.

Galasso, Giuseppe, ‘Berlin, la verità è una ricerca senza fine’, Il corriere della sera, 3 May 1999

§Galston, William A., ‘Expressive Liberty, Moral Pluralism, Political Pluralism: Three Sources of Liberal Theory’, William and Mary Law Review 40 no. 3 (March 1999), 869–907

§Galston, William A., ‘Value Pluralism and Liberal Political Theory’, American Political Science Review 93 no. 4 (December 1999), 769–78

García Guitián, Elena, ‘La vigencia de I. Berlin’, Isegoría 20 (May 1999), 227–30

Gunn, J. A. W, ‘Many Good Things: Isaiah Berlin’s Moral Pluralism’, Queen's Quarterly 106 no. 2 (Summer 1999), 181–93

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Isaiah Berlin no kachitagenron: gendai seigiron ni okeru sono kanousei’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s Value Pluralism’], in Doshisha hogaku [Doshisha Law Review] 51 no. 6 (1999), 1–60

Haslam, Jonathan, The Vices of Integrity: E. H. Carr, 18921982 (London, 1999: Verso)

~ Hayward, Jack, ‘British Approaches to Politics: The Dawn of a Self-Deprecating Discipline’, in Jack Hayward, Brian Barry and Archie Brown (eds), The British Study of Politics in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999: Oxford University Press/The British Academy): the volume has other references to IB as well – see 29, 43, 48; 50–1 (at Oxford); 435, 438 (disdain for doctorates); 321, 325, 326, 335 (on nationalism); 318 note (nature of political science); 51–2, 55–6 (political theory approach); 64, 66–72, 85 (Noël O’Sullivan, ‘Visions of Freedom: The Response to Totalitarianism’); 69, 462 (‘Two Concepts of Liberty’); 67–72, 85, 86, 150 (on value pluralism)

Ignatieff, Michael, and others, Berlin in Autumn: The Philosopher in Old Age (Occasional Papers of the Doreen B. Townsend Center for the Humanities, 16) ([Berkeley, 2000: Doreen B. Townsend Center for the Humanities]); Michael Ignatieff, ‘Berlin in Autumn’, repr. with corrections in Alistair Horne (ed.), Telling Lives: From W. B. Yeats to Bruce Chatwin ([Basingstoke and?] London, 2000: Macmillan)

§Joas, Hans, ‘Combining Value Pluralism and Moral Universalism: Isaiah Berlin and Beyond’, The Responsive Community 9 no. 4 (Fall 1999), 17–29

Kelly, P. J., ‘Contextual and Non-Contextual Histories of Political Thought’, in Jack Hayward, Brian Barry and Archie Brown (eds), The British Study of Politics in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999: Oxford University Press/The British Academy)

Koyanagi Masahiro, ‘Kontekusuto to jiyū: Berlin no. jiyūron ni kansuru kaishaku wo tyushin ni’ [‘Context and Freedom: I. Berlin on Liberty’], Human Science (Bulletin of the College of Law and Letters, University of Ryukyu) no. 4 (1999) , 27–59

Lafer, Celso, ‘Isaiah Berlin and Hannah Arendt’, Hannah Arendt Newsletter no. 1 (April 1999), 19–24

Lassman, Peter, ‘Pluralism and Liberalism in the Political Thought of Isaiah Berlin’, Political Studies Association Conference Proceedings 1999, 21 pp.

Lassman, Peter, and Buckler, Steve, ‘The Resurgence of Liberalism: Context, Isaiah Berlin, Friedrich Hayek’, chapter 5 of Political Thinkers of the Twentieth Century (London, 1999: Routledge)

Legutko, Ryszard, ‘O obiektywnym pluralizmie wartosci’ [On objective pluralism of values], in Liberalizm u schylku XX wieku [Liberalism at the close of the twentieth century], ed. Justyna Miklaszewska (Cracow, 1999: Meritum)

Legutko, Ryszard, ‘Sir Isaiah – liberal naiwny’ [Sir Isaiah – a naive liberal], Zycie, 22–23 November 1997, 14–15; repr. in id., O czasach chytrych i prawdach pozornych [On sly times and sham truths (a quote from Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice)] (Krakow, 1999: Stalky i Spolka), 69–75; trans. Hungarian [Ryszard Legutko, ‘Sir Isaiah, a naív liberális’, in A demokrácia csúfsága [The ugliness of democracy] (Máriabesnyõ-Gödöllõ, 2005: Attraktor), 190–7]

Leiter, Robert, ‘Attacks on Isaiah Berlin and “Life is Beautiful” ’, Jewish Exponent, 11 February 1999, 4

§Lessnoff, Michael H., Political Philosophers of the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999: Blackwell), chapter 8, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Monism and Pluralism’

Lowe, John, The Warden: A Portrait of John Sparrow (London, 1999: HarperCollins)

Mack, Arien (ed.), Liberty and Pluralism [Social Research 66 no. 4 (Winter 1999)]: many articles discuss IB, esp. those by, Grant, Guttman, Honneth, Kateb and Katznelson; those by Flathman, Miller, Strong and Yack refer to him

Makino Hiroyoshi, ‘Syoukyokuteki jiyū to sekkyokuteki jiyū ni tsuite’ [‘On Negative and Positive Liberty’], in Hannan ronshu, jinbun/shizenkagaku hen [Journal of Hannan University (Humanities/Natural Sciences)] 34 no. 4 (1999), 89–97

~ Maruyama, Masao, ‘Rekisi ishiki toha nanika’ [‘What is Awareness of History?’ (historisches Bewusstsein)] (discussion held on 2 June 1979 at Keio University), in Maruyama Masao Techo [Masao Maruyama Notebook, a quarterly edited by his friends and former students) 10 (July 1999), 1–38 (IB at 18–19), and 12 (January 2000), 1–16; repr. in id., Wabunshu [speeches, discussions, interviews and essays], ed. Maruyama Masao techo no kai [Masao Maruyama Notebook Association], 4 vols (Tokyo, 2008–9: Misuzu), vol. 3 (2008), 230–307 at 254–5 (when Maruyama died, the editors of Maruyama Masao Techo collected these pieces, which hadn’t been included in his collected works): in a discussion of historism (Historismus), Maruyama mentions Popper’s use of ‘historicism’; when IB visited Japan, Maruyama asked IB whether Popper’s usage was widely recognised, because in his opinion it was completely out of line with that of other thinkers, for example, Meinecke’s Historismus; Popper was free to coin a new term, but when he used ‘historicism’ in The Open Society and Its Enemies and The Poverty of Historicism, he caused confusion; IB replied ‘You are absolutely right. Popper’s usage is deviant, at any rate from normal usage. He should not have used ‘historicism’ in that way. It should be used as Meinecke and Troeltsch used it, that is to say in the sense of historical individuality.’

Massarenti, Armando, ‘Com’è romantica la libertà dei moderni’, Il sole ventiquattrore, 31 January 1999

Morimoro Tetsuo, ‘John Gray to Berlin no jiyū oyobi jiyūshugi riron’ [‘John Gray and Berlin’s Theory of Liberty and Liberalism’], in Asia hogaku [Asia University Law Review] 34 no. 1(1999), 91–108, 34 no. 2 (2000), 45–70, 36 no. 1 (2001), 75–121

Nakano Takamitsu, ‘Berlin to Taylor: tagenshugi wo megutte’ [‘Berlin and Taylor: Two Theories of Pluralism’], in Shakai shisou kenkyu [Annals of the Society for the History of Social Thought] no. 23 (1999), 158–171

Neiman, Susan, ‘Mit der Weisheit liebäugeln’ [‘To Wink at Wisdom: Isaiah Berlin’s Essay “The Purpose of Philosophy” ’], Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 47 (1999), 863–71; Berlin’s essay is printed in a German translation in the same volume, on pages 833–42

O’Neill, Onora, ‘Vom Positivismus zum Pluralismus’ [‘From positivism to pluralism’], Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 47 (1999), 843–50

O’Sullivan, Noel, ‘Visions of Freedom: The Response to Totalitarianism’, in Jack Hayward, Brian Barry and Archie Brown (eds), The British Study of Politics in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999: Oxford University Press/The British Academy)

~ Peacocke, Christopher, Being Known (Oxford, 1999: Oxford University Press), 85

Pippin, Robert B., ‘Philosophie und geschichtlicher Wandel: wie zeitgemäß ist Isaiah Berlins Kulturphilosophie?’ [‘Philosophy and historical change: how up to date is Isaiah Berlin’s philosophy of culture?’], Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 47 (1999), 851–61

Podhoretz, Norman, ‘A Dissent on Isaiah Berlin’, Commentary 107 no. 2 (February 1999), 25–37; letters and response by Podhoretz, ibid. 107 no. 5 (May 1999), 20–3

~ Rappaport, Helen, Joseph Stalin: A Biographical Companion (Santa Barbara etc., 1999: ABC-CLIO), 2 only

~ Rogers, Ben, A. J. Ayer: A Life (London, 1999: Chatto and Windus)

Rorty, Richard, ‘Afterword: Pragmatism, Pluralism, and Postmodernism’, in Philosophy and Social Hope (London and New York, 1999: Penguin)

Ryan, Alan, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Political Theory and Liberal Culture’, Annual Review of Political Science 2 (1999), 345–62; repr. in id., The Making of Modern Liberalism (Princeton, 2012: Princeton University Press), 395–412

~ Stern, Isaac, with Chaim Potok, My First Seventy Nine Years (New York, 1999: Knopf), 289:

Isaiah Berlin was an idol of mine and probably the finest mind I have ever encountered. We shared many moments of happy conversation, discussing everything from music to poitics to people, to gossip at his home, on the telephone, or in letters. We met in London, in Oxford, in Jerusalem, in New York, wherever it was possible to be together at the same time. I loved him deeply and I miss him.

~ Stonor Saunders, Frances, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London, 1999: Granta); published in the US as The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters (New York, 2000: New Press)

Stradins, J., ‘Home-Coming of Prophet Isaiah’ (opening speech of the conference ‘The Value of Freedom – Challenge of Isaiah Berlin’ held on 22–7 September 1998 in Riga), Latvijas ZinatnuAkademijas Vestis a Dala 4/6 (1999), 139

Utechin, S. V., ‘I. M. Berlin i ego ideinoe nasledie’ (‘Berlin and his philosophical heritage’), Grani 54 no. 189 (1999), 210–20; repr. in Voprosy filosofii 2000 no. 5, 45–50

Veitch, Scott, Moral Conflict and Legal Reasoning (Oxford, 1999: Richard Hart): an application of the thought of both Berlin and MacIntyre to legal theory

Warburton, Nigel, ‘Two Concepts of Freedom’, in id., Arguments for Freedom (Milton Keynes, 1999: The Open University)

Watson, George, ‘The Magus of the North: Sir Isaiah Berlin (1909–97)’, Hudson Review 52 no. 2 (Summer 1999), 234–44

Worms, Fred S., ‘Zionism and Sir Isaiah Berlin’, Ariel (Jerusalem) 110 (May 1999), 48–55; trans. Spanish


~ Abramsky, Sasha, The House of 20,000 Books (London, 2000: Halban), 34, 74, 103, 115, 116. 117, 131–2, 196, illustration between 212 & 213, 214, 259, 261, 263, 275, 293, 296, 197, 308

~ §Baghramian, Maria, and Ingram, Attracta (eds), Pluralism: The Philosophy and Politics of Diversity (London and New York, 2000: Routledge), 2–3, 9, 125, 127, 137; 147, 138–9 (on equal rights); 84–5, 99 (on pluralism); 124–5 (on romanticism); 149 (on the utility principle)

Berkowitz, Peter, Virtue and the Making of Modern Liberalism (Princeton:, 2000: Princeton University Press), 148, 218 note 5, 225–6 note 8

Blattberg, Charles, From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First (Oxford, 2000: Oxford University Press)

~ Bovero, Michelangelo, Contro il governo dei peggiori (Bari, 2000: Laterza)

~ Burk, Kathleen, Troublemaker: The Life and History of A. J. P. Taylor (New Haven/London, 2000 : Yale University Press)

Burtonwood, N., ‘Must liberal support for separate schools be subject to a condition of individual autonomy?’, British Journal of Educational Studies 48 no. 3 (September 2000), 269–84

~ Cherniss, Joshua, ‘The Tragic Vision: An Essay in Ethical Exposition’, Yale Journal of Ethics 9 no. 1 (December 2000), 24–41

Cohen-Almagor, Raphael (ed.), Challenges to Democracy: Essays in Honour and Memory of Isaiah Berlin (London, 2000: Ashgate); contents

~ Cox, Michael (ed.), E. H. Carr: A Critical Appraisal (Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave, 2000)

Davis, Laurence, ‘Isaiah Berlin, William Morris, and the Politics of Utopia’, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 3 no. 2/3 (2000), 56–86

Delannoi, G., ‘Isaiah Berlin, Liberal et Pluraliste’, Commentaire 23 no. 89 (2000), 194–7

~ DeWiel, Boris, Democracy: A History of Ideas (Vancouver and Seattle, 2000: UBC Press and University of Washington Press); extract

Donnelley, Strachan, ‘Nature, Freedom, and Responsibility: Ernst Mayr and Isaiah Berlin’, Social Research 67 no. 4 (Winter 2000), 1117–36

~ Esman, A. H, ‘Sigmund Freud and Isaiah Berlin – Concord and Discord’, Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought 23 no. 1 (2000), 35–50

~ §Gray, John, Two Faces of Liberalism (Cambridge, 2000: Polity)

~ §Gray, John, ‘Pluralism and Toleration in Contemporary Political Philosophy’, Political Studies 48 (2000), 323–33

Hardy, Henry, ‘Berlin’s Big Idea’, Philosophers’ Magazine 11 (Summer 2000), 15–16, and (as ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Key Idea’ ) Romulus (the magazine of Wolfson College, Oxford) NS 4 no. 1 (Trinity 2000), 4–5; trans. Spanish as ‘Isaiah Berlin: le clave de su pensamiento’, Caja negra 1 no. 1 (January–June 2001), 83–6

Hardy, Henry, ‘Confessions of an Editor’, Australian Financial Review, 30 June 2000, Review section, 4–5; trans. Polish

Harris, Ian, ‘La philosophie politique en Grande-Bretagne’, Cités: philosophie, politique, histoire 2 (2000), 209–19

~ Henderson, Nicholas, Old Friends and Modern Instances (London, 2000: Profile Books)

John Kekes, Pluralism and Philosophy: Changing the Subject (Ithaca, 2000: Cornell University Press)

Michael Kenny, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Contribution to Modern Political Theory’, Political Studies 48 (2000), 1026–39; contains some small mistakes of fact: e.g. IB didn’t really do ‘intelligence work’, and Henry Hardy was never IB’s ‘student’, nor (by the same token) IB his ‘tutor’; there are also some bibliographical errors, of a moderately self-evident character for those who know IB’s work

Kralin, Mikhail, ‘Ser Isaiya Berlin i “Gost′ iz Budushchego” ’ [‘Sir Isaiah Berlin and “the Guest from the Future” ’], in his Pobedivshee smert′ slovo: stati ob Anne Akhmatovoi i vospominaniya o ee sovremennikakh [The Word That Has Vanquished Death: Essays on Anna Akhmatova and Memoirs on Her Contemporaries] (Tomsk, 2000), 190–221: this article, drafted in 1990, was due to appear alongside a Russian translation of IB’s 1980 memoir ‘Meetings with Russian Writers in 1845 and 1956’ (in PI) – ‘Vstrechi s russkimi pisatelyami v 1945 i 1956 godakh’, trans. N. I. Tolstoy, Zvezda, 1990 no. 2 (February), 129–57 – but in the event the translation appeared without it; Kralin anticipates some of what is said in L. Kopylov, T. Pozdnyakova and N. Popova, ‘I eto bylo tak’: Anna Akhmatova i Isaiya Berlin [‘That’s How It Was’: Anna Akhmatova and Isaiah Berlin] (St Petersburg, 2009), whose authors argue with apparent plausibility that IB met Akhmatova on three further occasions not mentioned in his memoir: cf. PI3 398/1

Levy, Jacob T., ‘Isaiah Berlin’, in The Encyclopedia of Nationalism (New York, 2000: Academic Press); unreliable on factual detail

~ Levy, Jacob T., The Multiculturalism of Fear (New York, 2000: Oxford University Press), esp. chapter 3, ‘The Impossibility of Universal Nationalism’, and chapter 4, ‘Pluralism, Diversity, and Preserving Cultural Communities’

~ Linker, Daman, ‘The Reluctant Pluralism of J. G. Herder’, Review of Politics 62 (2000), 267–93

Lobanov-Rostovsky, Nikita D., ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin, Oxford and I’, Numbers no. 3 (2000), 20–1; Russian trans. in a Russian collection: Mikhail Parkhomovsky and Andrey Rogachevsky (eds), Russian Jews in Great Britain: Articles, Publications, Memoirs and Essays [Russian Jewry Abroad, vol. 2] (Jerusalem, 2000: Mikhail Parkhomovsky), 36–40

The author knew Berlin’s wife, the daughter of a St Petersburg banker. When Lobanov turned eighteen, before his enrolment in Oxford University, he also met Isaiah Maksimovich [sic] himself. Lobanov listened to Berlin’s description of Oxford and its students’ lifestyle. Many years later he found out from Berlin why he [Lobanov] was awarded an Oxford scholarship (Berlin was a member of the grant awarding committee).

Marrone, Pierpaolo, article on IB in Roberto Esposito and Carlo Galli (eds), Enciclopedia del pensiero politico (Bari, 2000: Laterza), 67

Massarenti, Armando, ‘Machiavelli, aiutaci tu: contro tutte le utopie di vita perfetta’, Il sole ventiquattrore, 5 November 2000, Domenica, 25; accompanies an extract from the translation of ‘The Originality of Machiavelli’ in the Italian edition of AC

Marzo, Enzo, ‘Sartori: “il pluralismo? Non sempre è buono” ’, La stampa, 4 May 2000

Mondry, Henrietta, ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997)’ (in Russian), in a Russian collection: Mikhail Parkhomovsky and Andrey Rogachevsky (eds), Russian Jews in Great Britain: Articles, Publications, Memoirs and Essays [Russian Jewry Abroad, vol. 2] (Jerusalem, 2000: Mikhail Parkhomovsky)

The English philosopher Isaiah Berlin always remained a custodian of Jewish identity and a friend of Israel. Familiarity with Russian intellectual thought and his European education assisted the development of this thinker. Discussed here are Berlin’s meetings with Freud and Pasternak, his friendship with Chaim Weizmann and Anna Akhmatova, his lecturing work, and his diplomatic service in Moscow and Washington, as well as his publications Historical Inevitability,The Age of Enlightenment and Four Essays on Liberty.

Naiman, Anatoly, ‘Sir’, Oktyabr 2000 no. 11 (November), 3–75, and no. 12 (December), 73–148

Nakano Takamitsu, ‘Tagenshugi sisou no. ichi keifu: Isaiah Berlin to Charles Taylor’ [‘Differences in Pluralism: Isaiah Berlin and Charles Taylor’], in Shakai shisou kenkyu [Annals of the Society for the History of Social Thought] no. 24 (2000), 42–4; also discusses John Gray

Pan´kovsky, Anatoly, ‘Isaya Berlin pra svabodu’ [Isaiah Berlin on freedom], Fragmenty 1–2 (2000), 79–92

Rainone, Antonio, article on IB in Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti: Appendice 2000 (Rome, 2000: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana), 188–9

~ Rescher, Nicholas, Pluralism: Against the Demand for Consensus (Oxford, 2000: Oxford University Press), chapter 10

~ Ricciardi, Mario, ‘Libertà’, in Roberto Esposito and Carlo Galli (eds), Enciclopedia del pensiero politico (Bari, 2000: Laterza), 388–90

§Jonathan Riley, ‘Crooked Timber and Liberal Culture’, in Baghramian and Ingram (above): sympathetic to IB vs John Gray

Ruiz-Domènec, ‘Isaiah Berlin: del ostracismo a la cúspide’, La Vanguardia, 12 May 2000, 8–9

~ Sandall, Roger, The Culture Cult: Designer Tribalism and other essays (Boulder, Co., 2000: Westview Press): dismissive of IB; cf. review by Samuel Brittan, ‘The Not So Noble Savage’, Prospect, October 2001

~ Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917–1950 (Boston, 2000: Houghton Mifflin)

Siame, C. N., ‘ ”Two Concepts of Liberty” through African Eyes’, Journal of Political Philosophy 8 no. 1 (2000), 53–67

~ Siedentop, Larry, Democracy in Europe (London, 2000: Allen Lane The Penguin Press), 199–206

Sweet, P. R., ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin, Fichte, and German Romanticism’, German Studies Review 23 no. 2 (May 2000), 245–56

Llosa, Mario Vargas, ‘The Man Who Knew Too Much’ (2000), in Touchstones: Essays on Literature, Art and Politics, trans. and ed. John King (London, 2007: Faber), 225–36

Vējš, J. N., ‘Jesaja Berlins – filozofs no. Latvijas’ [‘Isaiah Berlin – Philosopher from Latvia’], in Yearbook Filosofijsvobov kontseptsii ashchenie cbobody (Riga, 2000: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology), 45–55

Vējš, Jānis, ‘ “Izvraschenie” svobody v kontseptsii svobody Isaii Berlina i opyt posttotalitarnogo obshchestva’ [‘The Perversion of Freedom in Isaiah Berlin’s Concept of Freedom and the Experience of a Post-totalitarian Society’], in Ēbreji mainīgajā pasaulē III [Jews in a Changing World III] (Riga, 2000: Latvian University Centre for Judaic Studies)

Véliz, Claudio, ‘Isaiah Berlin, humanitatis magister’,Estudios públicos no. 80 (Spring 2000), 15 37

Villari, Lucio, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Libertà senza moralismo’, La repubblica, 12 June 2000

~ Warnock, Mary, A Memoir: People and Places (London, 2000: Duckworth)

Yamakaze Seiji, ‘ “Sentaku no. jiyū” to ningen no. chiteki hatten: Isaiah Berlin Jiyūron tono taiwa’ [‘ “Freedom of Choice” and the Intellectual Development of Human Beings: A Dialogue with Isaiah Berlin’s Four Essays on Liberty], in Seiji Yamakaze and others (eds), Jiyū to shijyo heno enkinhou [Perspectives on Liberty and the Market] (Tokyo, 2000: Jissensha)


Aguilar, José Antonio, ‘Isaiah Berlin y el árbol torcido de la humanidad’, Caja negra 1 no. 1 (January–June 2001), 91–5

~ Abbey, Ruth, Charles Taylor (Philosophy Now series) (Princeton, 2001: Princeton University Press)

~ Allen, Jonathan, ‘The Place of Negative Morality in Political Theory’, Political Theory 29 no. 3 (June 2001), 337–63

Barry, Brian, ‘Isaiah, Israel and Tribal Realism’, review of POI, PI, FL and MarkLilla, Ronald Dworkin and Robert B. Silvers (eds), The Legacy of Isaiah Berlin, The Times Literary Supplement, 9 November 2001, 00

Bobbio, Norberto, ‘Le illusioni del comunismo e la mia battaglia’, in Eugenio Scalfari (ed.), Attualità dell’illuminismo (Bari, 2001: Laterza)

~ Bacigalupo, Massimo, ‘Un incantevole Tigullo “paradise” per gli americani’, Il secolo XIX, 15 August 2001, 11

Bosetti, Giancarlo, ‘La notte di Isaiah Berlin’, in Eugenio Scalfari (ed.), Attualità dell’illuminismo (Bari, 2001: Laterza)

~ Brock, Michael, ‘From the Archives: Michael Brock Remembers’, interview with Jeremy Black, College Record 2000–2001 ([Oxford, 2001: Wolfson College]): good on IB’s role in the establishment of the College

Cao Yiqiang, ‘The Berlin I Knew’ (in Chinese), Zhonghua dushubao (The Chinese Review of Books), 8 August 2001, 17: includes comments on CTH and POI

~ Carter, Ian, and Ricciardi, Mario (eds), Freedom, Power and Political Morality: Essays for Felix Oppenheim (Basingstoke and New York, 2001: Palgrave)

~ Carter, Miranda, Anthony Blunt: His Lives (London, 2001: Macmillan)

Cohen, G. A., ‘Freedom and Money’

~ Cowling, Maurice, Religion and Public Doctrine in Modern England, vol. 3 (Cambridge, 2001: Cambridge University Press)

Dahrendorf, Ralf, ‘Il cuore di Berlin batteva per i lumi’, in Eugenio Scalfari (ed.), Attualità dell’illuminismo (Bari, 2001: Laterza)

Dénes, Iván Zoltán, ‘Egy európai liberális gondolkodó portréja’ [‘Portrait of a European liberal thinker’], in id., Európai mintakövetés – nemzeti öncélúság: Értékvilág és identitáskeresés a 19-20. századi Magyarországon [Adoption of European models versus national self-centeredness: value systems and the search for identity in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungary] (Budapest, 2001: Új Mandátum), 243–55

Dénes, Iván Zoltán, ‘Isaiah Berlin és Bibó István szabadságértelmezésének összehasonlítása’ [‘A comparison of Isaiah Berlin’s and István Bibó’s interpretations of liberty’], in id., Európai mintakövetés – nemzeti öncélúság: Értékvilág és identitáskeresés a 19-20. századi Magyarországon [ Adoption of European models versus national self-centeredness: value systems and the search for identity in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungary] (Budapest, 2001: Új Mandátum), 256–66

~ Dworkin, Ronald, ‘Do Values Conflict? A Hedgehog’s Approach’, Arizona Law Review 43 (2001), 251–9

Ferrajoli, Luigi, ‘Tre concetti di libertà’, in Ida Dominijanni (ed.), Motivi della libertà (Milan, 2001: Franco Angeli), 169–85

Fetherling, George, ‘Christopher Hitchens runs amok’, Vancouver Sun, 28 July 2001, H16

García Guitián, Elena, ‘Monismo frente a pluralismo: una introducción a la visión política de Isaiah Berlin’, in R. Máiz (ed.), Teoría Política Contemporánea (Valencia, 2001: Tirant Lo Blanch)

~ Greenspan, Neil S., ‘You can’t have it all’, Nature 409, 11 January 2001, 137

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Kachitagenron to liberalizumu no seigousei: Isaiah Berlin no. giron wo sozai to shite’ [‘Isaiah Berlin on Value-Pluralism and Liberalism’], Doshisha hogaku [Doshisha Law Review] 52 no. 6 (2001), 149–221

Hardy, Henry, and others, ‘In Defence of Isaiah Berlin’ (letters), The Times Literary Supplement, 16 November 2001, 6 (Henry Hardy, John Hope Mason, Mario Ricciardi); 7 December 2001, 6 (Joshua Cherniss, Ian Harris)

Hertzberg, Arthur, ‘A Small Peace for the Middle East’, Foreign Affairs 80 no. 1 (January/February 2001), 139–47: opens with an invocation of IB and refers to him again on 143

Hosoya, Yuichi, ‘Gaikoukan Isaiah Berlin: aru shisousika no. shozo’ [‘Isaiah Berlin as a Diplomat: A Portrait of a Historian of Thought’], Soubun no. 428 (2001), 27–31

~ Ignatieff, Michael, Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry (Princeton, 2001: Princeton University Press), 57, 80

~ Ignatieff, Michael, ‘The Attack on Human Rights’, Foreign Affairs 80 no. 6 (November/December 2001), 102–16 (and see 174)

~ Kaplan, Robert D., Warrior Politics: Why Leadership Demands a Pagan Ethos (New York, 2001: Random House)

~ Koga Keita, Kindai seiji shisou ni okeru jiyū no. dentou: Luther kara Mill made [The Tradition of Liberty in Modern Political Thought: From Luther to Mill] (Kyoto, 2001: Koyo Shobo), 2–7

La Porta, Filippo, ‘Mille risposte alle mille domande umane’, L’unità, 10 November 2001

~ Lebrun, Richard A., ‘Joseph de Maistre in the Anglophone World’, in id. (ed.), Joseph de Maistre’s Life, Thought, and Influence: Selected Studies (Montreal & Kingston, 2001: McGill–Queen’s University Press, 2001): see 286–8

Liu Xiao Feng, ‘The Docility of the Hedgehog: Leo Strauss contra Isaiah Berlin’, in Meng Meng (ed.), Revelation versus Reason: From Socrates through Nietzsche to Strauss (Beijing, 2001: China Social Sciences Press), 1–64; a follower of Leo Strauss’s critique of IB (the book favours a return to Socrates and absolute truth as against nihilism and relativism)

~ Magni, Sergio Filippo, ‘Libertà negativa e positiva in Bobbio’, Filosofia politica 15 (2001), 111–19

Makino Hiroyoshi, Jiyū no. paradokkusu to bensyouhou [The Paradox of Freedom and the Dialectic] (Tokyo, 2000: Aoki Shoten), chapter 6

Martynenko, Olga, ‘Polifonichnost′ filosofsko-istoricheskogo diskursa I. Berlina’ (‘The polyphony of I. Berlin’s discourse’), Gumanitarnye issledovaniya no. 5 (2001), 127–136

Massarenti, Armando, ‘La libertà che dobbiamo ai romantici’, Il sole ventiquattrore, 16 September 2001

Meynell, Stephen, ‘Isaiah Berlin y la comprensión de otras culturas’, Caja negra 1 no. 1 (January–June 2001), 96–107

Mezzadra, Sandro, ‘Isaiah Berlin, la ferita dei dannati’, Il manifesto, 3 January 2001

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Berlin Seijishisou niokeru tetsugakuteki kousou: “Oxford tetsugaku” ki wo tyushin ni’ [‘The Conception of Philosophy in Isaiah Berlin’s Political Thought, with Special Reference to His “Oxford Philosophy” Period’], Waseda seiji kouhou kenkyu [Waseda Study of Politics and Public Law] no. 66 (2001), 155–83

~ §Newey, Glen, After Politics: The Rejection of Politics in Contemporary Liberal Philosophy (New York: Palgrave, 2001): contains several mentions of IB, a chapter on pluralism and a section of another chapter on John Gray – see on IB 79, 166, 201–2, 212–13 note 12; 26, 202, 204 (on ‘negative liberty’)

~ §Newey, Glen, ‘How do you like your liberalism: fat or thin?’, review of John Gray, Two Faces of Liberalism, London Review of Books, 7 June 2001, 3–6: contains a useful illustration of the need to define terms when talking about pluralism:

[...] pluralism needs careful specification here. Among contemporary liberal philosophers, it’s the name for quite different claims: that society contains many different religions, belief-systems, subcultures etc.; that whether or not there are a lot of these things, there ought to be; that reasonable people disagree, or that disagreement is reasonable, about morality, and God, and that sort of thing; that different lifestyles, e.g. of a Bronze Age Greek warrior and the CEO of General Motors, are hard to combine; that some valuable things, such as love, can be difficult to combine with others, like cash; that sometimes it’s hard to make up one’s mind, e.g. between love and cash.

The term’s elasticity makes it hard not to agree to be a pluralist. Its strength and weakness lie in its beginning with banality, and gesturing towards grandeur. it can sometimes sound as if we start off on the sofa in front of the telly, mildly torn (or as the phrase has it, ‘conflicted’) about whether or not it’s worth missing the commercials to get up for another beer; and ... whoosh, we’re at Aulis with Agamemnon, in agonies, the cold steel glinting, over whether or not to murder Iphigenia.

~ Peyton, John, Solly Zuckerman (London, 2001: Murray)

~ Portinaro, Pier Paolo, ‘Profilo del liberalismo’, in Benjamin Constant, La libertà degli antichi paragonata a quella dei moderni, ed. Giovanni Paoletti (Turin, 2001: Einaudi), 48–54, 142–3

Quintanilla, Lourdes, ‘Una visita de Berlin a la poesía’, Caja negra 1 no. 1 (January–June 2001), 87–89

~ Rehg, William, and Bottman, James, Pluralism and the Pragmatic Turn (Cambridge, 2001: MIT Press), 343–54 (on Hegel and Berlin)

Ricciardi, Mario, ‘Berlin lettore di Sorel’, in Paolo Pastori and Giovanna Cavallari (eds), Georges Sorel nella crisi del liberalismo europeo (Ancona, 2001: Affinità Elettive), 573–88

Riley, Jonathan, ‘Interpreting Berlin’s Liberalism’, American Political Science Review 95 (2001), 283–95: highly recommended as a plausible account of Berlin

Scalfari, Eugenio (ed.), Attualità dell’illuminismo (Bari, 2001: Laterza)

Scalfari, Eugenio, ‘Il nostro secolo senza lumi’, in id. (ed.), Attualità dell’illuminismo (Bari, 2001: Laterza), 3–10

Screech, Michael, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, in Felipe Fernandez-Armesto (ed.), Armchair Athenians: Essays from the Athenæum (London, 2001: The Athenæum)

Sidorsky, David, ‘The Third Concept of Liberty and the Politics of Identity’, Partisan Review 68 no. 4 (2001)

~ Skinner, Quentin, Liberty before Liberalism (Cambridge, 2001: Cambridge University Press), 113–16

Swift, Adam, Political Philosophy: A Beginner’s Guide for Students and Politicians (Oxford etc., 2001: Polity and Blackwell), esp. part 2, is critical of IB as ‘confused and confusing’, and in a puff Brian Barry says ‘Beginning students ... will be spared the effort to make sense of Berlin’s “two concepts of liberty” [sic], thanks to Swift’s crisp exploration of its multiple confusions.’

Toulmin, Stephen, Preface to Return to Reason (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2001: Harvard University Press), vii–x, at vii–viii

* ~ Wallace, Teresa, and others (eds.), Time and Tide: Sea of Faith Beyond the Millennium (Alresford, 2001: John Hunt)

~ Wokler, Robert, ‘The Professoriate of Political Thought in England since 1914: A Tale of Three Chairs’, The History of Political Thought in National Context, ed. Dario Castiglione and Iain Hampsher-Monk (Cambridge, 2001: Cambridge University Press), chapter 7 (134–58)

Yu Jongho, ‘Aijaieo Beollinui Ekkal Mareukeuseuem’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s Karl Marx’], Dongailbo [Donga Daily], 6 October 2001, 30; repr. in the 2012 reissue of the 2001 Korean translation


Cherniss, Joshua, ‘ “A Cautious, Sober Love Affair with Humanity”: Humanism in the Thought of Isaiah Berlin’, Senior Essay, Political Science, Yale University, 2002: highly recommended as a ‘third way’ of approaching Berlin

Cherniss, Joshua, ‘Philosopher, Historian, Liberal: How Isaiah Berlin Made a Difference’, talk given in St Giles’ Church, Oxford, on 21 November 2002

Cocks, Joan, Passion and Paradox: Intellectuals Confront the National Question (Princeton/Oxford, 2002: Princeton University Press): chapters 3 and 4 discuss IB

Cooke, Alistair, ‘Letter from America’, BBC Radio 4, 20 December 2002: includes passages about IB (who is not named)

James Cracraft, ‘A Berlin for Historians’, History and Theory 41 no. 3 (October 2002), 277–300

~ Craft, Robert, An Improbable Life: Memoirs (Nashville, 2002: Vanderbilt University Press); includes letters from IB

Crick, Bernard, ‘On Isaiah Berlin’, in Crossing Borders: Political Essays (London, 2001: Continuum), 163–73

§Crowder, George, Liberalism and Value Pluralism (London and New York, 2002: Continuum): a really excellent and thorough synthesis of the argument so far which also makes numerous original contributions; immediately the standard work on the subject

§Crowder, George, ‘Two Value-Pluralist Arguments for Liberalism’, Australian Journal of Political Science 37 (2002), 457–73

§Crowder, George, and Griffiths, Martin, ‘Postmodernism, Value Pluralism, and International Relations’, in Darryl S. L. Jarvis (ed.), International Relations and the ‘Third Debate’: Postmodernism and its Critics (Westport, 2002: Praeger); a lightly revised version of their APSA conference paper of 1999

Dubin, Boris, ‘Neskol′ko slov o stat′e Berlina “Evropeiskoe edinstvo i ego sud′by” [introduction to Russian translation of Berlin’s ‘European Unity and its Vicissitudes’]’, Neprikosnovennii zapas: debati o politike i kul′ture 21 no. 1 (2002), 3–5

~ Figes, Orlando, Natasha's Dance. A Cultural History of Russia (London, 2002: Allen Lane), 667–8

Galston, William, Liberal Pluralism: The Implications of Value Pluralism for Political Theory and Practice (Cambridge etc., 2002: Cambridge University Press): a dense but brief and exhilarating defence of IB’s outlook, among other things

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Isaiah Berlin: hini aru shakai no jitsugen wo mezashite’ [‘Isaiah Berlin on the Decent Society’], in K. Tomisawa and K. Koga (eds), Nijyusseiki no seijishisouka tachi [Political Thinkers in the Twentieth Century] (Kyoto, 2002: Minerva Shobo), 152–75

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Kachitagenron to liberalizumu’ [‘Value Pluralism and Liberalism’], in Nihon Houtetsugakkai [‘The Japan Association of Legal Philosophy’] (ed.), Houtetsugaku nenpou 2001 [The Annals of Legal Philosophy 2001] (2002), 124–30

Hardy, Henry, ‘A Huge Unsorted Heap’, Oxford Today 14 no. 2 (Hilary 2002), 51

Hardy, Henry, ‘Pluralism and Radical Tolerance’, Insights 118 no. 1 (Fall 2002), 21–3: no explicit reference to IB, but evidently relevant to and derivative from his work

Hardy, Henry, ‘Russell’s “History” ’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 14 March 2002, 49: corrects an error in a footnote to IB’s ‘Notes on Prejudice’

Harris, Ian, ‘Berlin and his Critics’, in Isaiah Berlin, Liberty, ed. Henry Hardy (London and New York, 2002: Oxford University Press), 349–66

~ Horton, John, ‘Rawls in England’, European Journal of Political Theory 1 no. 2 (2002), 147–61

Ignatieff, Michael, and others, special ‘Idee’ (‘Ideas’) section on IB, Przegląd polityczny no. 54 (2002), 98–150

Kelly, Duncan, ‘The Political Thought of Isaiah Berlin’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations 4 no. 1 (April 2002), 25–48

Johnson, Michael, ‘Meeting Isaiah Berlin’, privately printed as a booklet, with a Foreword by Henry Hardy and a Preface by Esther Johnson, to mark an exhibition of Michael Johnson’s paintings at Wolfson College, Oxford, in 2007

~ LaVaque-Manty, Mika, Arguments and Fists: Political Agency and Justification in Liberal Theory (New York/London, 2002: Routledge)

Linker, Damon, ‘Off Center’, First Things 120 (February 2002)

~ Mackenzie, Archie, Faith in Diplomacy: A Memoir (Caux/London, 2002: Caux Books/Grosvenor Books)

Martynenko, Olga, Politicheskaya filosofiya Isaii Berlina (‘Isaiah Berlin’s Political Philosophy’), abstract of a Master’s thesis, Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, 2002: Sputnik)

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Berlin “Rekishi no. Hukahisei” saidoku: jiyū to sekinin no. jyoken wo megutte’ [‘Re-reading Berlin’s Historical Inevitability: In Search of the Conditions of Human Freedom and Responsibility’], in Waseda seiji kouhou kenkyu [Waseda Study of Politics and Public Law] no. 71 (2002), 217–44

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Isaiah Berlin no. rinriteki tagenron: tagenteki jyoukyou ni okeru rikai to handan’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s Ethical Pluralism: Multiplicity, Understanding and Practical Judgement’], Waseda seiji kouhou kenkyu [Waseda Study of Politics and Public Law] no. 69 (2002), 301–27

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, ‘Dwie twarze liberalizmu’ [Two faces of liberalism], review of John Gray, Two Faces of Liberalism, Przegląd polityczny 56 (2002), 150

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, ‘Tożsamość na styku trzech kultur’ [‘An Identity Where Three Cultures Meet’], Przegląd Polityczny no. 54 (2002), 106–19

~ Reder, Martin W., ‘Reply to Hamowy’s Note on Hayek and Anti-Semitism’, History of Political Economy 34 no. 1 (2002), 261–72

~ Ricciardi, Mario, ‘Rawls in Italy’, European Journal of Political Theory 1 no. 2 (2002), 229–41

~ Richards, Robert J., The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe (Chicago/London, 2002: University of Chicago Press), 6, 201–2: says IB’s interpretation of romantic thinkers should be accepted only with ‘severe qualification’

Riley, Jonathan, ‘Defending Cultural Pluralism within Liberal Limits’, Political Theory 30 no. 1 (February 2002), 68–97

~ Sabl, Andrew, ‘When Bad Things Happen from Good People (and Vice-Versa): Hume’s Political Ethics of Revolution’, Polity 35 no. 1 (Fall 2002), 73–92

~ Sacks, Jonathan, The Dignity of Difference (London and New York, 2002: Continuum), 45–6, 62–3

Sasaki, Takeshi, ‘ “Rikkyakuten” no jikaku: I. Berlin ni okeru “seishinshi” gainen ni kansuru oboegaki’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s Notion of Intellectual History as an Enquiry into the Foundations of Thought’], Nihon daigaku daigakuin sougou shakai jyouhou kennkyū ka kiyou [Nihon University GSSC Journal] no. 3 (2002), 1–14

Skinner, Quentin, ‘A Third Concept of Liberty’, the British Academy’s inaugural Isaiah Berlin Lecture, Proceedings of the British Academy 117, 2001 Lectures (2002); shortened version, London Review of Books, 4 April 2002, 16–18

Stoppard, Tom, ‘The question is: Why should anyone obey anyone else?’, Daily Telegraph, 2 May 2002, 28: an edited extract from Stoppard’s keynote address on 1 May 2002 at a symposium on liberty organised by the Daily Telegraph

Tada, Masuki, ‘Kindai gourishugi hihan no shoshisou: Isaiah Berlin no shosetsu wo megutte’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s Ideas on Anti-Rationalism’], Yokohama syoudai ronsyu [Bulletin of Yokohama College of Commerce] 35 nos 1–2 (2002), 39–57

Ueno, Daiki, ‘Berlin no. liberalizumu ni okeru gengo bunseki to rekishi/shakai bunseki: “zentaishugi” tanjyo no. hutatsu no. keiki to syoukyokuteki jiyū no. minimarizumu ni tsuite’ [‘Linguistic Analysis and Historical Sociology in Isaiah Berlin’s Liberalism’], Yokkaichi daigaku sougou seisaku gakubu ronshu [Yokkaichi University Journal of Policy Management] 10 nos 1–2 (2011), 13–32

~ Veca, Salvatore, La bellezza e gli oppressi (Milan, 2002: Feltrinelli)

~ Viroli, Maurizio, Die Idee der Republikanischen Freiheit: Von Machiavelli bis heute (Zürich, 2002: Pendo), 49–53 (on republican liberty: cf. Quentin Skinner)

Walicki, Andrzej, ‘Isaiaha Berlina intelektualna historia Rosji’ [Isaiah Berlin’s intellectual history of Russia], postscript to a forthcoming Polish translation of RT, Przegląd polityczny no. 54 (2002), 134–50; expanded when included in the translation (see Walicki 2003)

Wang Qian, ‘Aru rekishika to tetsugakusha no. giron: E. H. Carr to Isaiah Berlin no. rekishitetsugaku wo meguru ronsou’ [‘An Argument between a Historian and a Philosopher: The Controversy on the Philosophy of History between E. H. Carr and Isaiah Berlin’], Shisoushi kenkyu [Journal of History of Ideas] no. 2 (2002), 169–185

Weigel, George, ‘A Better Concept of Freedom’, First Things, March 2002, 14–20

White, Stuart, ‘Must liberty and equality conflict?’, Renewal 10 no. 1 (2002), 27–38

Wokler, Robert, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment’, in András Kovács and Esther Andor (eds), Jewish Studies at the Central European University II, 1999–2001 (Budapest, 2002: Jewish Studies Project, Central European University), 205–19; repr. in Mali and Wokler 2003 (see under ‘Books on Berlin’)


Adams, Ian, and R. W. Dyson, ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin (1909–97)’, in Fifty Major Political Thinkers (London, 2003: Routledge), 190–3 (see also 143, 193, 244)

Allen, Jonathan, ‘Isaiah Berlins Anti-Procrustean Liberalism: Ideas, Circumstances, and the Protean Individual’, prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association (28–31 August 2003, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)

Aoki, Tamotsu, Tabunka sekai [Multicultural World] (Tokyo, 2003: Iwanami Shoten), 84–113; discusses ‘The Pursuit of the Ideal’

Avner, Yehuda, ‘A Jew with Trembling Knees’, Jerusalem Post 11 July 2003

~ Badillo O’Farrell, Pablo (ed.), Pluralismo, tolerancia, multiculuralismo: reflexiones para un mundo plural (Madrid, 2003: Akal)

Ben-Artzi, Amir, ‘Isaiah Berlin as an Anthropological Historian of Ideas’ (in Hebrew), Zmanim 21 no. 81 (Winter 2002–3), 32–41

Brock, Michael, ‘ “An Engagement Very Difficult”: The Early Days at Wolfson’, Michael Argyle Memorial Lecture, 14 June 2003, College Record 2002–2003 (Oxford, [2003]: Wolfson College), 74–89

Burtonwood, Neil, ‘Isaiah Berlin, Diversity Liberalism, and Education’, Educational Review 55 no. 3 (2003), 323–31

Carter, Ian, ‘Positive and Negative Liberty’, in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Crowder, George, ‘Hedgehog and Fox’, review article covering FL, POI, FIB, TCE and The Legacy of Isaiah Berlin, Australian Journal of Political Science 38 no. 2 (July 2003), 333–77

Crowder, George, ‘Pluralism, Relativism and Liberalism in Isaiah Berlin’, paper read at the Australian Political Science Association conference, 2003 (at the University of Tasmania)

Cuneo, Luca, ‘Un’eredità berliniana: pensare sul crinale del tragico’, Rivista di filosofia neo-scolastica 95 (2003), 475–512

Deguchi Takeshi, ‘ “Motsu jiyū” “aru jiyū” no. shakaigakuteki ningenron: I. Berlin “hutatsu no. jiyū” gainen no. sonzaironteki saikousei’ [‘Anthropology of “Freedom to Have” and “Freedom to Be”: An Ontological Reconstruction of I. Berlin’s Concepts of “Two Liberties” ’], in S. Katagiri and Y. Nibe (eds), Gendai shakai niokeru rekishi to hihan (ge): kindai shihonsei to shutaisei [History and Criticism in Contemporary Sociology 2: Modern Capitalism and Subjectivity] (Tokyo, 2003: Toshindo Publishing), 173–95

Delannoi, Gil, Preface to Isaiah Berlin, Le Sens des réalités, French translation of SR by Gil Delannoi et Alexis Butin (Paris, 2003: Les Editions des Syrtes), 9–22

Desiderio, Giancristiano, ‘Isaiah Berlin o del pluralismo’, in id., Le uova e la frittata: filosofia e libertà in Benedetto Croce, Hannah Arendt, Isaiah Berlin (Macerata, 2003: Liberilibri), 83–110

Franco, Paul, ‘The Shapes of Liberal Thought: Oakeshott, Berlin, and Liberalism’, Political Theory 31 no. 4 (August 2003), 484–507

Frazer, Elizabeth, ‘Pluralism and Politics’, paper presented at seminar on ‘Approaches to Pluralism in Muslim Contexts’, Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations, Aga Khan University, Karachi, October 2003

Gaus, Gerald F., ‘Pluralistic Liberalism: Making Do without Public Reason?’, chapter 2 (pp. 25–55) of Contemporary Theories of Liberalism (London, 2003: Sage): a detailed and sophisticated discussion which concludes that IB’s liberalism and value pluralism can’t be reconciled: ‘to the extent Berlin is a pluralist, he is not a liberal; and to the extent he is a liberal, he is not a pluralist’ (p. 50)

~ Gould, Stephen Jay, The Hedgehog, the Fox, and the Magister’s Pox: Mending the Gap between Science and the Humanities (London, 2003: Jonathan Cape), 3

Hagihara, Nobutoshi, ‘Daimei no nai shohyou’ [‘Untitled Book Review’], in Nobutoshi Hagihara, Jiyū no seishin [The Spirit of Liberty] (Tokyo, 2003: Misuzu), 283–6; originally published in the monthly Tokyo magazine Chuokoron, January 1968, 210–11

Hagihara (who later took the initiative in inviting IB to Japan in the 1970s) has recently read two essays by IB which made a strong impression on him: ‘Mr Churchill in 1940’ and ‘L. B. Namier: A Personal Impression’. He is excited by the precision and richness of IB’s historical perspective. He wants to emphasise that IB addressed such important themes: e.g., the nature of the nineeteenth and twetieth centuries in Western Europe. For that reason, his essays are markedly profound.

Hanzawa, Takamaro, Yoroppa sisoushi ni okeru ‘seiji’ no. shosou [Aspects of ‘Politics’ in the History of European Thought] (Tokyo, 2003: Iwanami Shoten), 102–119

Hardy, Henry, ‘Isaiah Berlin, Condillac and Herder’ (letter), The Times Literary Supplement, 10 January 2003, 15 [the indent before ‘[Herder]’ is a mistake by the The Times Literary Supplement]

~ Ignatieff, Michael, ‘Arendt’s Example’ (2003)

Jackson, Ben, ‘Two Faces of Liberalism: Leonard Hobhouse and Isaiah Berlin’, Pelican Record (the magazine of Corpus Christi College, Oxford) 41 no. 4 (December 2003), 38–49

Hidekazu Kawai, ‘20 Seiki no. mottomo sugureta jiyūshugisha’ [‘The Greatest Liberal in the Twentieth Century’], Kokusai koryu [International Exchanges], July 2003, 25–31

According to Professor Kawai, when IB and Lady Berlin went to visit a very important Shinto shrine, the priest said if that if they could conduct themselves in the traditional Shinto manner, they would be allowed to go into the inner sanctum. IB said he could worship any god except the Christian God (which somewhat terrified Kawai). So the guests worshipped in the traditional Japanese way. At the same time, a delegation of the Israeli Labour Party was vsiting the shrine, but they did not enter the inner sanctum. IB went out to speak to them in Hebrew, and he later told Kawai that the women in the delegation felt it very odd that foreigners had gone into the inner part of the shrine.

McLean, Hugh, ‘Foxes into Hedgehogs: Berlin and Tolstoy’, in Catherine Evtuhov and Stephen Kotkin (eds), The Cultural Gradient: The Transmission of Ideas in Europe, 1789-1991 (Lanham, Md, and Oxford, 2003: Rowman & Littlefield), 283–94; repr. in Hugh McLean, In Quest of Tolstoy (Boston, 2008: Academic Studies Press), 214–26

Norton, Robert E., ‘The Berlin Error’, review of Condillac’s Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge, ed. and trans. Hans Aarsleff, The Times Literary Supplement, 27 December 2002, 25: the quotations are from PSM 383 / TCE 191

Pan´kovsky, Anatoly, ‘Agonal´nyi liberalizm Isaii Berlina’ [Isaiah Berlin's agonistic liberalism], Logos 2003 nos 4–5 (39), 166–77

Pan´kovsky, Anatoly, ‘Kontseptsiya cheloveka v filosofii Berlina’ [The concept of the person in Berlin’s philosophy], in Sbornik nauchnykh statei po materialam Mezhdunarodnogo naychno-obrazovatel´nogo foruma “Evropa-2003” (4 iyunya 2003 g.) (Minsk, 2003: European Humanities University), 342–8

Pan´kovsky, Anatoly, ‘Kontseptsiya sotsial´nogo soglasheniya v sovremmenoi liberal´noi teorii’ [The concept of social arrangements in contemporary liberal theory], in Sbornik nauchnykh statei po materialam Mezhdunarodnogo naychno-obrazovatel´nogo foruma “Evropa-2003” (4 iyunya 2003 g.) (Minsk, 2003: European Humanities University), 241–8

Pan´kovsky, Anatoly, ‘Ob”ektivnost´ otsenki: vvedenie v agonal´nuyu dekonstruktsiyu I. Berlina’ [The objectivity of valuing: an introduction to I. Berlin’s agonistic deconstruction], Topos 2003 no. 8, 96–109

Pan´kovsky, Anatoly, ‘Radikal´noe prosveshchenie Zhizheka, prosveshchennyi skeptitsizm Berlina’ [Zizek’s radical enlightenment, Berlin’s enlightened scepticism], in Sbornik nauchnykh statei po materialam Mezhdunarodnogo naychno-obrazovatel´nogo foruma “Evropa-2002” (4 iyunya, 2002 g.) (Minsk, 2003: European Humanities University), 244–56

~ Petrucciani, Stefano, Modelli di filosofia politica (Turin, 2003: Einaudi), 171–3

Samuels, Warren J., ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Preconceptions of Economics with Regard to Liberty’, in Derek Hum (ed.), Faith, Reason, and Economics (Manitoba, 2003: St. John’s College Press, University of Manitoba), 189–202

Shweder, Richard A., ‘The Idea of Moral Progress: Bush versus Posner versus Berlin’, in Philosophy of Education Society (US), Philosophy of Education 2003, 29–56 (this essay is followed by a number of replies, listed and linked to here)

Siedentop, Larry, ‘What Are We to Make of Isaiah Berlin?’, in Wm Roger Louis (ed.), Still More Adventures with Britannia: Personalities, Politics and Culture in Britain (London, 2003: I. B. Tauris; Texas, 2003: Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center), 175–194

Snodgrass, David, ‘The Debate over a Style for Serious Radio Talks on the BBC: 1946–1957’, Journal of Radio Studies 10 no. 1 (2003), 104–9; contains a section (115–17) entitled ‘Isaiah Berlin: Portrait of the Intellectual as Broadcaster’

Spicer, Michael W., ‘Masks of Freedom: An Examination of Isaiah Berlin's Ideas on Freedom and Their Implications for Public Administration', Administrative Theory and Praxis 25 (2003), 545–88

Walicki, Andrzej, ‘Isaiah Berlin i dziewietnastowieczeni mysliciele rosyjscy’ (‘Isaiah Berlin and Russian Thought in the Twentieth Century’), afterword to Rosyjscy Mysliciele, trans. Sergiusz Kowalski (Warsaw, 2003: Prószynski), 317–52; an expanded version of Walicki 2002

Wang Qian, ‘I. Berlin to sono hihansha tachi: jiyū no. gainen wo megutte’ [‘I. Berlin and His Critics: On the Concept of Liberty’], Shisoushi kenkyu [Journal of History of Ideas] no. 3 (2003), 175–191

Wentzell, Richard J., ‘Value Pluralism: Some Implications for Multiculturalism’ (draft)


~ Barbano, Filippo, in Gian Mario Bravo (ed.), Alessandro Passerin d’Entrèves (1902–1985) (Milan, 2004: Franco Angeli), 69

Blau, Adrian, ‘Against Positive and Negative Liberty’, Political Theory 32 no. 4 (August 2004), 547–53

~ Bravo, Gian Mario, ‘Alessandro Passerin d’Entrèves: Uomo di cultura e cittadino europeo’, in Gian Mario Bravo (ed.), Alessandro Passerin d’Entrèves (1902–1985) (Milan, 2004: Franco Angeli), 28

Carter, Ian, ‘L’incommensurabilità dei valori e il diritto alla libertà’, in Emanuele Bardone e Enzo Rossi (eds), Oltre le culture (Pavia, 2004: Ibis), 83–101

Ceva, Emanuela, ‘Giustizia procedurale e pluralismo dei valori’, in Mario Ricciardi e Corrado Del Bò (eds), Pluralismo e libertà fondamentali (Milan, 2004: Giuffrè), 31–55

Cherniss, Joshua, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, in Carl Mitcham (ed.), Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics (London, 2004: Macmillan; Detroit, 2005: Thomson Gale)

Crowder, George, ‘Galston’s Liberal Pluralism’, refereed paper presented to the Australasian Political Studies Association Conference, University of Adelaide, 29 September to 1 October 2004; abstract also available

~ De Caro, Mario, Il libero arbitrio: Un’introduzione (Bari, 2004: Laterza), 5, 8, 117

Dimova-Cookson, Maria, ‘Conceptual Clarity, Freedom, and Normative Ideas’, Political Theory 32 No 4 (August 2004), 554–62

Gonda, Joseph, ‘Isaiah Berlin and Concepts of Evil’ (letter), The Times Literary Supplement, 17 September 2004, 6

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Kachitagenron to kyohu no. liberalizumu: Berlin to Shklar no. hikaku wo toshite’ [‘Value-Pluralism and the Liberalism of Fear: Berlin and Shklar’], in J. Llompart, Y. Mishima, and K. Hasegawa (eds), Hou no riron 23 [Legal Theory 23] (Tokyo, 2004: Seibundoh), 37–57

Hanley, Ryan P., ‘Political Science and Political Understanding: Isaiah Berlin on the Nature of Political Inquiry’, American Political Science Review 98 (2004), 327–39

Hardy, Henry, ‘A Deep Understanding’, Jewish Chronicle, 26 March 2004, 35–6

Hardy, Henry, ‘An Open Letter to Isaiah Berlin’, The Times Higher Education Supplement, 26 March 2004, 20–1

Hatier, Cécile, ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Totalitarian Mind’, European Legacy 9 no. 6 (December 2004), 767–82

Hogg, Jonathan, ‘The Ambiguity of Intellectual Engagement: Towards a Reassessment of Isaiah Berlin’s Legacy’, Eras 6 (2004); comments by Charles Blattberg (search for ‘Hogg’)

Horton, Richard, ‘Rediscovering Human Dignity’, Lancet 364 no. 9439 (18–24 September 2004), 1081–5 (comment 1019)

Kalugin, Oleg, ‘Delo KGB na Annu Akhmatovu’ [Anna Akhmatova’s KGB file], in Gosbezopasnost´ i literatura na opyte Rossii i Germanii (SSSR i GDR) (Moscow, 2004: Rudomino), 72–9; a rare insight into Akhmatova’s file from a sometime General in the KGB

Kuida, Hirokazu, ‘I. Berlin “hutatsu no. jiyū gainen” kenkyu: syoukyokuteki jiyū toha ikanaru jiyū ka?’ [‘A Study of I. Berlin’s “Two Concepts of Liberty”: What Kind of Liberty is Negative Liberty?’], Otani daigaku daigakuin kenkyu kiyou [Research Report in the Graduate School of Otani University] no. 21 (2004), 29–59

~ Lacey, Nicola, A Life of H. L. A. Hart: The Nightmare and the Noble Dream (Oxford, 2004: Oxford University Press)

~ Maruyama, Masao, Maruyama Masao shokanshu [Collected Letters of Masao Maruyama] (Tokyo, 2004: Misuzu), ii 187, 189

The late political philosopher Masao Maruyama visited Oxford in May 1975. He stayed at St Antony’s College and presided over a seminar on Japan. According to a letter from Maruyama to the late Hagiwara Nobutoshi, another Japanese friend of IB’s, IB was going to attend the seminar, but unfortunately became ill just beforehand. Just before Maruyama left Japan for Oxford, he received a letter from IB in which he thanked Maruyama for sending him his book Studies in the Intellectual History of Tokugawa (1952), trans. Mikiso Hane (Tokyo/Princeton, 1974: University of Tokyo Press). In the same letter IB also wrote that if Maruyama came to Oxford, he must tell him and Hagiwara.

Masao and Hagiwara (who had studied at Oxford c.1960) arranged a visit to Japan for IB in 1977, at the invitation of the Japan Foundation. Maruyama helped to set up a meeting between IB and the most famous sinologist in post-war Japan, the late maruykawa Kojiro (1904–80) of Kyoto University, and other Japanese scholars in Kyoto. Yoshikawa had a vast knowledge of Chinese culture, like Arthur Waley in England, and had translated many Chinese classics into Japanese. He was famous not only in Japan, but also in the Chinese academic world. Maruyama wrote in a letter of 30 May 1977 to his friend Furuya Jun (now at Hokkaido University, a specialist in history of American politics) that because IB was ignorant of Chinese classics, he helped to arrange the meeting. See also Yoshikawa 1982.

According to the same letter, when IB and Lady Berlin stayed in Tokyo, Maruyama and his friend Kato Shuichi (1919–2008), a member of the editorial board of the Japanese translation of The Dictionary of the History of Ideas (Tokyo, 1990: Heibonsha) another famous intellectual (critic, writer and thinker) in post-war Japan, accompanied the Berlins to Asakusa, a popular area of Tokyo where many foreigners go to see the sights and buy traditional Japanese presents; he wanted IB to see more than the standard famous buildings of the ancient Japanese aristocracy. There is a famous Buddhist temple called Sensoji in the area. When IB and Lady Berlin were sightseeing there, IB showed no. interest in the temple or other ancient Japanese buildings, nor in the natural scenery. What he talked about was Herder, the psychology of anti-Semitism, etc. Maruyama and his friend took the Berlins to a Russian Restaurant called Balalaika. IB was delighted and hummed a Russian folk song. Maruyama writes to Furuya that it seemed IB and his wife had thoroughly enjoyed the trip.

After returning to Britain, IB sent a long letter to Maruyama. He wrote that in Japan’s ancient buildings, every room seemed independently constructed, and at the same time the whole building was just like a terraced house in which every room has a door to the next room, so that you want to see the next room. In IB’s words, it is like an infinite enfilade. In comparison with Japan’s architecture, IB wrote that England, and particularly America, must surely seem crude, chaotic, shoddy, horribly uncontrolled. It seemed to Maruyama that the letter wasn’t ironical. IB also told Maruyama in the same letter that Lafcadio Hearn (1850–1904) hadn’t understood Japan completely. According to Maruyama, IB wrote very sincerely: he didn’t praise Japan just to be polite, as many visitors did who stayed in Japan only for a short time. So Maruyama thought his arrangements had been successful, and felt very comfortable about that. He described IB’s visit as a whirlwind.

~ Maruyama, Masao, Maruyama Masao shokanshu [Collected Letters of Masao Maruyama] (Tokyo, 2004: Misuzu), iv 297–8

In a letter of 10 April 1991 to the historian of ideas Kakegawa Tomiko, Maruyama writes that he has read IB’s essay on Joseph de Maistre in the New York Review of Books, and has recommended it to Misuzu, the monthly magazine of Misuzu Shobo, publishers of Japanese translations of FEL and VH. In his endorsement in Misuzu he expresses the reservation that seeing Maistre as a precursor of Fascism is problematic; nevertheless, everything IB touches becomes incredibly fascinating: Misuzu no. 358 (January 1991). Maruyama says he agrees almost entirely with Gertrude Himmerfarb’s review [New York Times Book Review, 24 March 1991, 1, 30–1]. A distinction cannot be made between pluralism and relativism. ‘In Japan too the diversity of culture is emphasised, and a Westernising cultural stance (whether such a stance has really been influential in Japan is arguable) is widely criticised. If we insist on pluralism, how can different cultures be compared? Without common standards, there can be no. comparison. It is strange that the issue has never been discussed in Japan in academia or in the press.’

~ Maruyama, Masao, Maruyama Masao shokanshu [Collected Letters of Masao Maruyama] (Tokyo, 2004: Misuzu), v 33 (letter of 16 June 1992)

In 1992 Maruyama watched IB’s Late Show TV interview with Michael Ignatieff, aired in Britain on BBC2 on 5 February 1992. The late Hagiwara Nobutoshi had copied the tape and sent it to Maruyama. After watching the tape, Maruyama wrote to Hagiwara that he was surprised how healthy IB looked, and that he listened to IB’s voice, unchanged since 1977, with nostalgia.

Massarenti, Armando, ‘Isaiah Berlin e l’azione delle idee’ Il sole ventiquattrore, 7 March 2004

~ Miller, David, review of Joan Cocks, Passion and Paradox: Intellectuals Confront the National Question, History of Political Thought 25 (2004), 365–7

Min, Yu-jing (in traditional Chinese), ‘Isaiah Berlin and Hannah Arendt: Perspectives on Self-Realisation’, Hongguang Proceedings in Humanities and Social Sciences no. 1 (October 2004), 107–14

~ Panebianco, Angelo, Il potere, lo stato, la libertà (Bologna, 2004: Il mulino)

Pan´kovsky, Anatoly, ‘O tolerantnoi politike: otkuda ona beretsya i kak osyshchestvlyaetsya’ [On political tolerance: its roots and implementation], parts I and II, Nashe mnenie, 8 July and 9 July 2004

Plaw, Avery, ‘Why Monist Critiques Feed Value Pluralism: Ronald Dworkin’s Critique of Isaiah Berlin’, Social Theory and Practice 30 no. 1 (January 2004), 105–26

Ricciardi, Mario, ‘Identità nazionale e pluralismo’, in Mario Ricciardi e Corrado Del Bò (eds), Pluralismo e libertà fondamentali (Milan, 2004: Giuffrè), 133–61

~ Riley, Jonathan, ‘Ethical Pluralism and Common Decency’, review article based on Richard Madsen and Tracy B. Strong (eds), The Many and the One: Religious and Secular Perspectives on Ethical Pluralism in the Modern World (Princeton, 2003: Princeton University Press), Journal of Moral Philosophy 1 (2004) no. 2, 211–21

~ Teruya, Yoshio, Kyoudoutai to guroubarizumu [Community and Globalism] (Tokyo, 2004: Seibundoh), 331–342

Thorsen, Dag Einar, ‘Value Pluralism and Normative Reasoning’, paper delivered on the course ‘Normativ Begrunnelse’ at the Department for Political Science, University of Oslo, 14–16 June 2004

Traniello, Francesco, ‘Berlin: uno storicista riluttante’, Contemporanea 7 (2004), 478–84

Tortarolo, Edoardo, ‘Berlin storico?’, Contemporanea 7 (2004), 485–89

Williams, Hywel, ‘An English Liberal Stooge’, Guardian, 14 April 2004, 20

Zaganiaris, Jean, ‘Des origines du totalitarisme aux apories des démocraties libérales: interprétations et usages de la pensée de Joseph de Maistre par Isaiah Berlin’, Revue française de science politique 6 no. 54 (December 2004), 981–1004

Zakaras, Alex, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Cosmopolitan Ethics’, Political Theory 32 no. 4 (August 2004), 495–518


Archambault, Paul J., ‘Vico and His Critics’, Symposium (Washington, DC) 58 no. 4 (Winter 2005), 249–69; hostile to IB

~ anon., ‘Jenifer Hart’ (obituary), Daily Telegraph, 9 April 2005, 25

~ Bowra, Maurice, New Bats in Old Belfries, or Some Loose Tiles, ed. Henry Hardy and Jennifer Holmes (Oxford, 2005: Robert Dugdale): Bowra’s satirical poems on his contemporaries, including two on IB, who at one time thought of editing these poems himself

~ Carter, Ian, La libertà eguale (Milan, 2005: Feltrinelli), 26–8

Cherniss, Joshua, ‘Berlin, Isaiah (1909–97)’, in Stuart Brown (ed.), The Dictionary of Twentieth-Century British Philosophers (Bristol, 2005: Thoemmes Continuum) i 85–91

Cherniss, Joshua (officially with Henry Hardy, but in fact almost entirely single-handedly), ‘Berlin, Isaiah’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (online)

Christman, John, ‘Saving Positive Freedom’, Political Theory 33 (2005), 79–88

Dubnov, Arie, ‘Liberal or Zionist? Ambiguity or Ambivalence? Reply to Jonathan Hogg’, Eras (2005)

Galston, William A., The Practice of Liberal Pluralism (Cambridge, 2005: Cambridge University Press)

Groß, Steffen W., Kultur, Markt und Freheit: Eine problemorientierte Heranführung an die Philosophie der Kultur (Würzburg, 2005: Königshausen & Neumann), esp. 133–44, ‘Freheit im Plural: Isaiah Berlin’

~ Haffenden, John, William Empson, vol. 1, Among the Mandarins (Oxford, 2005: Oxford University Press), 409 only

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Kachitagenron no tetsugaku to bouryoku toiu aku’ [‘Value-Pluralism and Concepts of Evil’], Doshisha hogaku [Doshisha Law Review] 57 no. 3 (2005), 37–102

Hosoya, Yuichi, ‘Shisouka to shite no. gaikoukan: Isaiah Berlin’ [‘The Diplomat as Thinker: Isaiah Berlin’], chapter 5 of id., Daieiteikoku no. gaikokan [The Diplomats of the British Empire] (Tokyo, 2005: Chikuma), on Harold Nicolson, E. H. Carr, Duff Cooper, IB and Oliver Franks; includes a photo of IB sitting beside the Queen on 8 April 1997, when she invited the holders of the OM to lunch

Jyunichi, Saito, Jiyū [Freedom] (Tokyo, 2005: Iwanami Shoten), chapter 2

Liu, Qing, ‘Rethinking Isaiah Berlin’s Thesis of Value Pluralism’ (in Chinese), Journal of East China Normal University No 6 (2005), 38–48: Isaiah Berlin is mostly known for his defence of value pluralism and also for being a liberal, but the theoretical connection between his pluralism and his liberalism is far from self-evident, and has been widely disputed among political philosophers. This article highlights the tension within Berlin’s thesis of value pluralism and examines the responses of contemporary liberals to the problem of value conflicts. The author concludes by suggesting the possibility and necessity of recasting the issue of value conflicts in anti-foundationalist terms.

Mendus, Susan, ‘Saving One’s Soul or Founding a State: Morality and Politics’ (the Prof. Sir Isaiah Berlin Lecture for 2005, University of Haifa, Center for Democratic Studies, 23 November 2005), Philosophia 34 (2006), 233–41

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Isaiah Berlin no. toraeru hankeimoushugisisou no. tancho: jitsuzonteki rekisikan wo tegakari toshite’ [‘Isaiah Berlin and the Origin of the Counter-Enlightenment: on his “Existentialist” View of History’], Igirisu tetsugaku kenkyu [Studies in British Philosophy] no. 28 (2005), 19–32

Nelson, Eric, ‘Liberty: One Concept Too Many?’, Political Theory33 (2005) 58–78

~ Offord, Derek, Journeys to a Graveyard: Perceptions of Europe in Classical Russian Travel Writing (Dordrecht, 2005: Springer), 169–70, 188; critical of IB on Herzen

Ottolenghi, Emanuele, ‘The Isaiah Berlin Public Lectures in Middle East Dialogue: An Introductory Note’, Israel Studies 10 no. 2 (Summer 2005), v–ix

Pan´kovsky, Anatoly, ‘O tolerantnoi politike kak vazhneishem “vklyuchenii” agonal´nogo liberalizma’ [On political tolerance as a major modification of agonistic liberalism], Perekrestki 2005 nos 3–4, 137–50 (click on ‘Skachat´’ link)

Parini, Jay, ‘A Conversation in Oxford – in memoriam Isaiah Berlin’, in id., The Art of Subtraction: New and Selected Poems (New York, 2005: George Braziller), 127–8

Plaw, Avery, ‘Re-visiting Berlin: Why Two Liberties are Better than One’, Politics and Ethics Review 1 no. 2 (Fall 2005), 138–57

Ryan, Alan, ‘Isaiah Berlin, 1909–1997’, Proceedings of the British Academy 130 (2005), 3–20

Skagestad, Peter, ‘Collingwood and Berlin: A Comparison’, Journal of the History of Ideas 66 [No 1] (2005), 99–112

Spicer, Michael W, ‘Determinism, Social Science, and Public Administration: Lessons From Isaiah Berlin’, American Review of Public Administration, 35 no. 3 (September 2005), 256–69

~ Thorsen, Dag Einar, ‘That Noble Science of Politics’, paper delivered on the course ‘Refleksjoner omkring valg og bruk av kvalitativ metode i statsvitenskap/samfunnsvitenskap’ at the Department for Political Science, University of Oslo, 18–21 April 2005; see 22

~ Timenchik, Roman, Anna Akhmatova v 1960-e gody (Moscow/Toronto, 2005: Vodolei/University of Toronto)

Toscano, Roberto, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Two Concepts of Liberty’ (Round table on Isaiah Berlin, House of Artists, Tehran, 23 June 2005), Pace Diritti Umani/Peace Human Rights, 2005 no. 3, 63–8

Vargas Llosa, Mario, ‘El huésped del futuro’, El País, 18 December 2005, Opiníon, 1718

Walicki, Andrzej (ed.), Russia, Poland and Marxism: Isaiah Berlin to Andrzej Walicki 1962–1996 [Dialogue and Universalism 15 no. 9–10/2005], 196 pp.; includes ‘Isaiah Berlin as I Knew Him’ (pp. 5–50) and footnotes on IB’s letters (pp. 53–175); reprinted as a book; reviewed by Lesley Chamberlain in The Times Literary Supplement, 10 March 2006, 22 [the implication at 48 (52 in the book) that Henry Hardy failed to pass on to IB what AW sent through me is unwarranted]

~ Williams, Bernard, In the Beginning was the Deed: Realism and Moralism in Political Argument, ed. Geoffrey Hawthorn (Princeton, 2005: Princeton University Press)

~ Williams, David Lay, ‘Modern Theorist of Tyranny? Lessons from Rousseau's System of Checks and Balances’, Polity 37 (2005) 443-65

Zdybel, Jolanta, Między wolnością a powinnością: filozofia polityczna Isaiaha Berlina i Alasdaira MacIntyre’a [Between liberty and obligation: the political philosophy of Isaiah Berlin and Alasdair MacIntyre] (Lublin, 2005: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej)


Beran, Michael Knox, ‘Was Liberalism’s Philosopher-in-Chief a Conservative?’, City Journal, Winter 2006, 00–0

Cherniss, Joshua, ‘Isaiah Berlin: A Defence’, Oxonian Review of Books 5 no. 2 (Spring 2006), 10–11

Crowder, George, ‘Gray and the Politics of Pluralism’, in The Political Theory of John Gray [Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 9 no. 2 (June 2006)], 171–88

Crowder, George, ‘Value Pluralism and Communitarianism’, Contemporary Political Theory 5 (2006), 405–27

Dahrendorf, Ralf, ‘Anmerkungen zur Freiheit, mit und auch gegen Isaiah Berlin’, chapter 6 of Versuchungen der Unfreiheit: die Intellektuellen in Zeiten der Prüfung (Munich, 2006: Beck; enlarged edition 2008)

Delannoi, Gil, ‘La liberté est-elle négative?’, Commentaire no. 115 (Autumn 2006), 745–53

~ Dénes, Iván Zoltán (ed.), Liberty and the Search for Identity: Liberal Nationalisms and the Legacy of Empires (Budapest/New York, 2006: Central European University Press): Dénes reports that the whole book was inspired by IB; see especially his Editor’s Preface (xiii–xv) and his two essays, ‘Liberalism and Nationalism: An Ambiguous Relationship’ (1–17) and ‘Political Vocabularies of the Hungarian Liberals and Conservatives before 1848’ (155–96); there are references to IB at xiii, xv, 170, 173, 187

Dénes, Iván Zoltán, ‘Three Concepts of Liberty’, unpublished

~ Dryzek, John S, Bonnie Honig and Anne Phillips (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Theory (Oxford, 2006: Oxford University Press), esp. 146–7, 153–6

Dworkin, Ronald, Justice in Robes (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 2006: Belknap Press): includes a chapter on IB

Erlich, Victor, Child of a Turbulent Century (Evanston, Illinois, 2006: Northwestern University Press), 163–9; refers to Lady (Aline) Berlin as ‘Dame Alene’ and to Henry Hardy as IB’s ‘former student’ (not true)

Garrard, Graeme, Counter-Enlightenments: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present (London, 2006: Routledge); chapter 6, ‘Enlightened Totalitarianism’, is on Berlin and Talmon

Hamburg, Gary M., ‘Closed Societies, Open Minds: Andrzej Walicki, Isaiah Berlin and the Writing of Russian History during the Cold War’, Dialogue and Universalism 16 no. 1–2/2006, 7–72

Inbari, Assaf, ‘The Spectacles of Isaiah Berlin’, Azure No 24 (Spring 2006), 82–112; letter from Alex Sztuden, no. 25 (Summer 2006) (the 4th letter at the linked URL)

~ Kersting, Wolfgang, Der liberale Liberalismus: Notwendige Abgrenzungen (Tübingen, 2006: Mohr Siebeck), esp. chapter 3, ‘Negative und positive Freiheit’

~ Langman, Lauren, review of Russell Jacoby, Picture Imperfect: Utopian Thought for an Anti-Utopian Age, Logos 5 no. 1 (Winter 2006)

Levy, Jacob, ‘It Usually Begins with Isaiah Berlin’, Good Society 15 no. 3 (2006), 23–6

Lin, Tzu-shu (in traditional Chinese), ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Dispute with Historians over “Moral Judgement”: A Spur to Developments in Twentieth-Century English Historiography’, Bulletin of the Department of History, National University of Taiwan no. 38 (December 2006), 219–70

Liu, Qing (in Chinese), ‘Isaiah Berlin and Liberal Nationalism’, Sociological Studies 21 no. 2 (2006), 162–81: discusses the theoretical possibility and complexity of ‘liberal nationalism’ by examining Isaiah Berlin’s reflections on nationalism. Drawing on recent research by David Miller, the author argues that there is inner tension in Berlin’s thought between his liberal pluralism and his cultural nationalism, which is why he failed to provide a consistent normative theory of liberal nationalism. The difficulty that Berlin confronts cannot be solved merely through conceptual clarification at the level of political philosophy, but a reconciliation between liberalism and nationalism may be achievable in practice, which would require a sociological approach sensitive to specific social and historical contexts. Finally, the author briefly delineates the features of nationalist discourse in contemporary China, and explores its relation to the prospect for liberal nationalism.

Lur′e, Samuil, ‘Odna iz molnii’, Moskovskie novosti, 1–7 December 2006, 40, a reveiw of a biography of Joseph Brodsky by Lev Losev, contains remarks by IB about Brodksy

~ Maruyama, Masao, ‘Rittarihhikaito [kishidao seisin] wo megutte’ [‘On Ritterlichkeit [Chivalry]: Weber, Nietzsche, Maruyama’] (discussion held on 14 May 1988), in Maruyama Masao Techo [Masao Maruyama Notebook, a quarterly edited by his friends and former students) 38 (July 2006),1–34, and 39 (October 2006), 1–29 (IB at 14); repr. in id., Wabunshu [speeches, discussions, interviews and essays], ed. Maruyama Masao Techo no. Kai [Masao Maruyama Notebook Association] , 4 vols (Tokyo, 2008–9: Misuzu), vol. 2 (2008), 375–463 at 437 (when Maruyama died, the editors of Maruyama Masao Techo collected these pieces, which hadn’t been included in his collected works): in this discussion, when Carl Schmitt is mentioned, Maruyama says that when he was staying in Oxford, IB visited him and told him that ’We have only one thing in common: both of us think Carl Schmitt is our honorable enemy.’ Maruyama guesses that somebody had told IB that he had studied Carl Schmitt, which he did from his early twenties. Maruyama acknowledges a debt to Schmitt.

~ Matsumura, Takao ,‘Rekishi ninshikiron to “rekishi ninshiki mondai” ’ [‘Historical Epistemology and Contemporary Disputes on Historical Knowledge’], Mita gakkai zasshi [Keio Journal of Economics] 98 no. 4 (2006), 547–8

Miller, David, ‘Crooked Timber or Bent Twig? Isaiah Berlin’s Nationalism’, Political Studies 53 (2005), 100–23; repr. in OM

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Liberaru na zen no. kousou: Isaiah Berlin to aidentiti no. seiji’ [‘The Liberal Conception of the Good: Isaiah Berlin and the Politics of Identity’], Seiji sisou kenkyu [Japanese Journal of Political Thought] no.6 (2006), 315–47

Plaw, Avery, ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Plurality of Histories: Two Concepts of Karl Marx’, Rethinking History 10 no. 1 (January 2006), 7593

Poole, Randall A., ‘Isaiah Berlin and Andrzej Walicki as Intellectual Historians and Liberal Philosophers: A Comment on G. M. Hamburg’s “Closed Societies, Open Minds” ’, Dialogue and Universalism 16 no. 1–2/2006, 73–9

Putterman, Theodore L., ‘Berlin’s Two Concepts of Liberty: A Reassessment and Revision’, Polity 38 (2006), 416–46

Silva-Herzog Márquez, Jesús, ‘Liberalismo trágico’, in id., La idiotez de la perfecto: Miradas a la política (Mexico City, 2006: Fondo de Culture Económica), 111–153

Stoppard, Tom, ‘The Presiding Spirit of Isaiah Berlin’, Lincoln Center Theater Review, Fall/Winter 2006 (issue 43); transcript of part of a phone conversation between Stoppard and the Review, July 2006 (‘the book which got me into writing The Coast of Utopia was a collection of essays by Isaiah Berlin, Russian Thinkers ... he’s the presiding spirit of the trilogy’)

~ Stern, Fritz, Five Germanys I Have Known (New York, 2006: Farrar, Straus & Giroux)

Sternhell, Zeev, Les anti-Lumières: Du XVIIIe siècle à la guerre froide (Paris, 2006: Fayard); trans. David Maisel as The Anti-Enlightenment Tradition (New Haven, 2010: Yale University Press); treats IB alongside Burke and Herder as (more or less) the enemy of mankind

Stoppard, Tom, ‘The Presiding Spirit of Isaiah Berlin’, Lincoln Center Theater Review, Fall/Winter 2006 (issue 43, 5; also available on the Lincoln Center Theater website)

Thompson, Mark, ‘Versions of Pluralism: William Empson, Isaiah Berlin, and the Cold War’, Literary Imagination 8 no. 1 (2006), 6587 [1]

Vējš, Jānis, ‘The Crooked Timber: Isaiah Berlin’s Conception of the Human Nature’, The European Connection: Baltic Intellectuals and the History of Western Philosophy and Theology 48 no. 2 (2006), 84–93

~ Whiteley, Benjamin, ‘Objective, Relative or Plural? Value Pluralism and the Status of Universal Values’, Melbourne Journal of Politics 31 (2006), 91–110[?]

Yasui, Taro, ‘Nippon@sekai (9) Nihon ni “Ichigenron” ha niawanai: ima koso I. Berlin no tagensyugi wo ukeirero’ [‘Japan@World (9) “Monism” is Unsuitable for Japan: Now is the Time to Receive I. Berlin’s Pluralism’], Gekkan Themis 15 no. 9 (2006), 92–93

~ Zaganiaris, Jean, Spectres contre-révolutionnaires: Interprétations et usages de la pensée de Joseph de Maistre XIXe–XXe siècles (Paris, 2006: L’Harmattan)


Bauer, Martin, and others, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, special section of Zeitschrift für Ideengeschichte 1 no. 4 (Winter 2007), 45–8, commemorating the 10th anniversary of Berlin’s death (5 November 2007); contents:

Cartwright, Justin, The Song Before It Is Sung (London, 2007: Bloomsbury); a novel giving a partly fictionalised account of the relationship between IB and Adam von Trott; widely reviewed, for example in the Daily Telegraph, the Financial Times, the Guardian, the Independent, the Independent on Sunday, the New Statesman, the Observer, the Scotsman, the Spectator, the Sunday Telegraph, the Sunday Times (in England and South Africa) and The Times; see also Cartwright’s piece in the Guardian, and his interview there with Nicholas Wroe

Time and again throughout this inspired, obvious Booker frontrunner of time shifts and revelations and individuals attempting to make sense of their lives, Cartwright makes the reader pause, gasp and wonder. This is what great fiction should do, and it certainly does here.
Eileen Battersby, Irish Times

Castello Branco, José Tomaz, ‘Isaiah Berlin: un homem livre’, Nova cidadania no. 34 (October–December 2007), 55–7

Crowder, George, ‘Berlin, Isaiah’, in Duncan Brack and Ed Randall (eds), Dictionary of Liberal Thought (London, 2007: Politico’s)

Crowder, George, ‘Berlin, Liberalism in the Face of Diversity’, interview with Elisabetta Ambrosi, Reset: Dialogues on Civilisation, 6 June 2007

Crowder, George, ‘Two Concepts of Liberal Pluralism’, Political Theory 35 no. 2 (April 2007), 121–46

Davis, Spencer, ‘From Helvétius to Hegel: Isaiah Berlin on Romantic Political Theory’, 2007 European Studies Conference, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Selected Proceedings

Dénes, Iván Zoltán, ‘Változatok a személyes és a politikai szabadság viszonyára’ [‘Variations on the relationship between personal liberty and political freedom’], Beszélő 12 no. 3 (March 2007), 40–57: Beszélő, a place where prisoners talk with their visitors, gave its name to the first samizdat periodical in Hungary (1981–9); today it is a political and cultural monthly

Draï, Raphaël, ‘Liberté des anciens et liberté des modernes chez Benjamin Constant et Isaiah Berlin: qui est “ancien” et qui est “moderne”?’, in Association française des historiens des idées politiques, Genève et la Suisse dans la pensée politique: Actes du Colloque de Genève (14–15 septembre 2006) (Marseille, 2007: Presses universitaires d’Aix-Marseille), 311–20

Dubnov, Arie, ‘Between Liberalism and Jewish Nationalism: Young Isaiah Berlin on the Road towards Diaspora Zionism’, Modern Intellectual History 4 no. 2 (2007), 303–26

Dubnov, Arie, ‘The Giant Shadow of Isaiah Berlin and Jacob Talmon – A Unique Kind of Intellectual Friendship: On Nationalism, Democracy, Liberalism and Freedom’ (in Hebrew), Kivunim hadashim [New Directions, published by the World Zionist Organization], vol. 15 (January 2007), 123–46

Hayao, Takanori, ‘Isaian Berlin ni okeru shionizumu to Israel: “liberalizumu” no. rinen to genjitsu’ [‘Zionism and Israel in the Thought of Isaiah Berlin: The Idea and Reality of Liberal Nationalism’], UTCP kenkyu ronsyu [UTCP Bulletin (University of Tokyo, Centre for Philosophy)] no. 10 (2007), 79–93

Kamimori, Ryo, ‘Berlin no. ronri jisshoushugi hihan’ [‘Berlin’s Critique of Logical Positivism’], Shagakuken ronshu [Waseda Journal of Social Sciences] no. 10 (2007), 40–54

Kamimori, Ryo, ‘Isaiah Berlin to romanshugi no. shoso’ [‘Isaiah Berlin and Aspects of Romanticism’], in M. Ikeda and K. Koga (eds), Hikakubunka no. kanousei: nihon kindaikaron heno gakusaiteki apurochi [The Possibility of Comparative Culture: Interdisciplinary Approach to Theories of Japan’s Modernisation] (Tokyo, 2007: Seibundoh), 355–368

Ladwig, Bernd, ‘Der Wert der Wahlfreiheit: Eine Kritik an Isaiah Berlins Verständnis negativer Freiheit’, Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 55 no. 6 (1991), 887–87

Lestition, Steven, ‘Countering, Transposing, or Negating the Enlightenment? A Response to Robert Norton’, Journal of the History of Ideas 68 No 4 (October 2007), 635–58; response to Norton 2007 below

Llosa, Mario Vargas, ‘Nationalism and Utopia’ (1992), in Touchstones: Essays on Literature, Art and Politics, trans. and ed. John King (London, 2007: Faber), 219–24

Nakano, Takamitsu, ‘Berlin tono taiketsu’ [‘Confrontation with Berlin’], in Takamitsu Nakano, Taylor no. komyunitarianizumu: jiko, kyoudoutai, kindai [Charles Taylor’s Communitarianism: Self, Community and Modernity] (Tokyo, 2007: Keiso Shobo), 66–78

Ohya, Takehiro, Jiyu toha nanika: kanshi shakai to ‘kojin’ no. shometsu [What is Liberty? Surveillance Society and the Loss of the ‘Individual Person’] (Tokyo, 2007: Chikuma Shobo), 56–64

Omori, Hidetomi, ‘Berlin no. jyubaku wo koete: Jean-Fabien Spitz ni okeru jiyu gainen’ [‘Beyond Berlin’s Chain: On the Conception of Liberty in Jean-Fabien Spitz’], The Okayama daigaku ho gakkai zasshi [Okayama Law Journal], 57 no. 1 (2007), 95–177

Norton, Robert, ‘The Myth of the Counter-Enlightenment’, Journal of the History of Ideas 68 No 4 (October 2007), 659–81

~ Offord, Derek, ‘Alexander Herzen and James de Rothschild’, Toronto Slavic Quarterly no. 19 (Winter 2007); critical of IB on Herzen

~ Pavel, Carmen, ‘Pluralism and the Moral Grounds of Liberal Theory’, Social Theory and Practice 33 no. 2 (April 2007), 199–21[?]

Pilkington, Ed, ‘Stoppard has Oprah-Effect for Book about Russian Thinkers’, Guardian, 27 January 2007, 00

Robinette, Christopher J., ‘Torts Rationales, Pluralism, and Isaiah Berlin’, George Mason Law Review 14 no. 2 (Winter 2007), 329–61

~ Safranski, Rüdiger, Romantik: eine deutsche Affäre (Munich, 2007: Hanser), 349, 356, 364–5

~ Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr, Journals, 1952–2000, ed. Andrew and Stephen Schlesinger (New York, 2007: Penguin Press)

Shentalinsky, Vitaly, Prestuplenie bez nakazaniya: dokumental´nye povesti [Crime without punishment: documentary stories] (Moscow, 2007: Progress-Pleiada); quotes a 1950 interrogation of Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev that backs up IB’s account of meeting Akhmatova only three times in 1945–6 (counting the meeting interrupted by Randolph Churchill as two)

~ Spencer, Vicki, ‘In Defense of Herder on Cultural Diversity and Interaction’, Review of Politics 69 (2007), 79–105

~ Talisse, Robert B., review of Richard E. Flathman, Pluralism and Liberal Democracy, Social Theory and Practice 33 no. 1 (January 2007), 151–8[?]

Teduka Hiroshi, ‘Liberalizumu to seijiteki na mono (1): shinri gainen no. tsuihou: Berlin to Rorty’ [‘Liberalism and the Political (1): The Exclusion of the Concept of Truth: Berlin and Rorty’], Ronshu (Tokyo daigaku daigakuin jinbun shakai kei kenkyu ka tetsugaku kenkyu shitsu) [Philosophical Studies (Department of Philosophy, The University of Tokyo)] 26 (2007), 232–245

Veca, Salvatore, ‘ “Il pluralismo non è relativismo” ’, Il sole ventiquattrore, 9 December 2007, 47

Wang Qian, ‘Benjamin, Maruyama, Berlin, soshite Chugoku shisoukai kinkyou ichibetsu’ [‘Benjamin, Maruyama, Berlin and a Glimpse of Philosophy in China in Recent Years’], Mirai no. 494 (November 2007), 35–40; discusses the reception of Benjamin, Maruyama and Berlin in China, especially that of Maruyama and Berlin; analyses why so many of IB’s books have been translated into Chinese and why he is so warmly appreciated by many Chinese readers, even though he barely mentioned China directly; emphasises IB’s importance for societies without a strong liberal tradition

Watanabe Mikio, ‘Berlin: C. Galipeau kara 10 nen’ [‘Berlin: Ten Years after C. Galipeau’], in Watanabe Mikio, Hayek to gendai liberalismi: ‘anti gourisyugi liberalizumu’ no. keifu [Hayek and Modern Liberalism: Some Aspects of ‘Anti-Rationalist Liberalism’, second edition] (Tokyo, 2007: Shunjusha), 539–549

Watanabe Mikio, ‘Berlin to Hayek’ [‘Berlin and Hayek’], in Mikio Watanabe, Hayek to gendai liberalizumu: ‘anti gourishugi liberalizumu’ no. keifu [Hayek and Modern Liberalism: Some Aspects of ‘Anti-Rationalist Liberalism’, second edition] (Tokyo, 2007: Shunjusha), 255–300

Zaganiaris, Jean, ‘Qu’est-ce que les Anti-Lumières?’, Revue Française de Science Politique 57 no. 1 (2007), 00–0; on Sternhell 2006


Aizawa, Hironori, ‘Jiyū to dentou (1): Berlin no. jiyū kan ni tsuite’ [‘Liberty and Traditon (1): On I. Berlin’s View of Liberty’],in Keizaigaku nenshi [The Hosei Journal of Economic Studies] no. 43 (2008), 1–18

Birnbaum, Pierre, ‘Isaiah Berlin: The Awaking of a Wounded Nationalism’, chapter 6 of Geography of Hope: Exile, the Enlightenment, Disassimilation (Palo Alto, 2008: Stanford University Press), 242–87

~ Cartwright, Justin, This Secret Garden: Oxford Revisited (London, 2008: Bloomsbury)

Chow, Po Chung, ‘Looking for Isaiah Berlin’, in Encounters (Hong Kong, 2008: Oxford University Press), 128–33; mainly about H. L. A. Hart and G. A. Cohen, since the eponymous search (for IB’s grave) was unsuccessful

Cloete, Elsie, ‘Africa's “Charismatic Megafauna” and Berlin's “Two Concepts of Liberty”: Postcolony Routes to Utopia?’ Politikon 35 no. 3 (December 2008), 257&8211;76

Crowder, George, ‘Berlin, Value Pluralism and the Common Good: A Reply to Brian Trainor’, Philosophy and Social Criticism 34 no. 8 (October 2008), 925–39

Crowder, George, ‘Multiculturalism: A Value-Pluralist Approach’, in Geoffrey Brahm-Levey (ed.), Political Theory and Australian Multiculturalism (New York, 2008: Berghahn)

~ Crowder, George, ‘Pluralism and Multiculturalism’, Society 45 no. 3 (2008), 247–52

Crowder, George, ‘Pluralism and Universalism’, in Azyumardi Azra and Wayne Hudson (eds), Beyond Conflict: Indonesian Islam and Western Political Theory (Aldershot, 2008: Ashgate)

Dabscheck, David, ‘Triumph of the Hedgehogs’,

~ Dénes, Iván Zoltán, ‘Personal Liberty and Political Freedom: Four Interpretations’, European Journal of Political Theory 7 no. 1 (January 2008), 81–98; revised Hungarian version, ‘A demokratikus politikai közösségalkotás normái. A személyes és a politikai szabadság viszonya II’ [‘The norms of creating democratic political communities: personal liberty and political freedom II’], in id., Szabadság–közösség. Programok és értelmezések [Eszmetörténeti Könyvtár series, vol. 9] (Budapest, 2008: Argumentum Kiadó-Bibó István Szellemi Mûhely), 260–84

Dubnov, Arie, ‘A Tale of Trees and Crooked Timbers: Jacob Talmon and Isaiah Berlin on the Question of Jewish Nationalism’, in Arie Dubnov (ed.), Jacob Talmon and Totalitarianism Today: Legacy and Revision [History of European Ideas 34 no. 2], 220–38

Ferrell, Jason, ‘The Alleged Relativism of Isaiah Berlin’, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 11 no. 1 (March 2008), 41–56

Hagihara, Nobutoshi, ‘Shiso heno tekii no nami: Isaiah Berlin, Jiyūron’ [‘Waves Hostile to Thought: Isaiah Berlin, Four Essays on Liberty’], in Nobutoshi Hagihara, Shosho shuyu [A Round Trip of Books] (Tokyo, 2008: Asahi Shimbunsha), 136–153; Originally published by Bungeishunju (Tokyo, 1973)

Hardy, Henry, ‘Dear Isaiah’, inaugural lecture in Barcelona, 29 January 2008, for ‘Isaiah Berlin: A Liberal in Perspective’, a conference held in Madrid and Barcelona, 28–9 January 2008, to mark the tenth anniversary of Berlin’s death

Hardy, Henry, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Inner Citadel’, inaugural lecture in Madrid, 28 January 2008, for ‘Isaiah Berlin: A Liberal in Perspective’, a conference held in Madrid and Barcelona, 28–9 January 2008, to mark the tenth anniversary of Berlin’s death; trans. Spanish as ‘La ciudadela interior de Isaiah Berlin’, Cuadernos de pensiamento político No 18 (April–June 2008), 71–85

Hardy, Henry, Interview with Julio Crespo MacLennan (English original), 30 January 2008; El Impartial (abbreviated and adapted Spanish translation), 31 January 2008

Hayao, Takanori, ‘Isaiah Berlin no. “mujyun” ’ [‘The Inconsistency of Isaiah Berlin’], in Hayao, Takanori, Yudaya to Isuraeru no. aida: minzoku/kokka no. aporia [Between Jewishness and Israel: The Aporia of a Nation] (Tokyo, 2008: Seidosha), 207–235

~ Inoue, Tatsuo, Jiyūron [On Liberty] (Tokyo, 2008: Iwanami Shoten), chapter 3

Kamimori, Ryo, ‘Berlin to nashonarizumu’, [‘Berlin and Nationalism’], Shagakuken ronshu [Waseda Journal of Social Sciences] no. 12 (2008), 1–15

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Berlin, Jiyūr’ [‘Berlin, [Four Essays] On Liberty’], in S. Okazaki and T. Kimura (eds), Hajimete manabu seijigaku: koten/meicho heno izanai [A Beginners’ Guide to Politics: An Introduction to the Classics] (Kyoto, 2008: Minerva Shobo), 65–75

~ Müller, Jan-Werner, ‘Fear and Freedom: On “Cold War Liberalism” ’, European Journal of Political Theory 7 no. 1 (January 2008), 45–64

Norton, Robert E., ‘Isaiah Berlin’s “Expressionism”, or: “Ha! Du bist das Blökende!” ’, Journal of the History of Ideas 69 no. 2 (April 2008), 339–47; response to Lestition 2007 above

Pan´kovsky, A., ‘O statuse blag i tsennostei v liberal´noi teorii: eticheskii realizm Isaii Berlina’ [On the status of benefits and values in liberal theory: Isaiah Berlin’s ethical realism], Topos 2008 no. 3 (20), 40–56

Pankovskij, Anatolij, ‘ “Pamatines” laisves reprezentacijos agonalaus liberalizmo kontekste’ [Representations of ‘basic liberty’ in the context of agonistic liberalism], Politologia 2008 no. 4 (52), 63–85; English summary at end

Plaw, Avery, ‘Conflict, Identity, and Creation: Isaiah Berlin and the Normative Case for Pluralism’, Partial Answers 7 no. 1 (2008), 109–32

~ Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, Pluralizm wartosci i jego implikacje w filozofii prawa (Value Pluralism and Its Implications for Legal Philosophy) (Krakow, 2008: Ksiegarnia Akademicka); includes an English summary

Reed, Jamie, ‘From Logical Positivism to Metaphysical Rationalism: Isaiah Berlin on The Fallacy of Reduction’, History of Political Thought 29 no. 1 (Spring 2008), 109–31

Rivero Rodríguez, Ángel, ‘Isaiah Berlin y Hannah Arendt más allá de la antipatía personal: la disputa sobre el significado de la libertad’ [‘Isaiah Berlin and Hannah Arendt beyond Personal Dislike: The Dispute about the Significance of Liberty’], Diacrítica [journal of the Center of Humanities, Minho University, Braga, Portugal] 22 no. 2 (2008), 173–84

~ Sato, Hikari, Liberalizumu no. saikouchiku: ‘jiyū no. sekkyokuteki na hoshu’ no. tameni [Restructuring Liberalism: For the ‘Positive Maintenance of Liberty’] (Tokyo, 2008: Shosekikoubou Hayakawa), chapter 1

~ Todorov, Tzvetan, Duties and Delights: The Life of a Go-Between, ed. Catherine Portevin, trans. Gila Walker (Oxford, 2008: Seagull), 119–20

~ Trainor, Brian T., ‘Politics as the Quest for Unity: Perspectivism, Incommensurable Values and Agonistic Politics’, Philosophy and Social Criticism 34 no. 8 (October 2008), 905–24; reply by George Crowder, ‘Berlin, Value Pluralism and the Common Good’, ibid., 925–39

Walicki, Andrzej, ‘Rosyjscy inspiratorzy koncepcji wolnosci Isaiaha Berlina’ [Russian inspirations of Isaiah Berlin’s conception of liberty], Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia 3 (2008) no. 2, 9–40

Wokler, Robert, ‘A Guide to Isaiah Berlin’s Political Ideas in the Romantic Age’, History of Political Thought 29 (2008), 344–69


Aberbach, David, ‘Talk is Golden’, The Times Literary Supplement, 5 June 2009, 14–15; see also letters, 12 June 2009, 6

Allen, Jonathan, ‘What's the Matter with Monism?’, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 12 no. 3 (2009), 469–89

Billington, James H., ‘A Humanist’s Conversation with the 20th Century (Isaiah Berlin, 1909–1997)’, British Academy Review issue 14 (November 2009), 22–4

Bendle, Mervyn F., ‘On Liberty’, Quadrant 53 no. 12 (December 2009)

Brendel, Alfred, ‘Vergnügen an Menschen, Opern und Ideen: Erinnerungen eines Musikers an Isaiah Berlin’, NZZ Online, 6 June 2009 (German version of his contribution to The Book of Isaiah)

~ Blattberg, Charles, Patriotic Elaborations: Essays in Practical Philosophy (Montreal and Kingston, 2009: McGill–Queen’s University Press, 2009)

Cartwright, Justin, ‘Berlin My Hero’, Jewish Quarterly No 212 (Winter 2008)

Chanan, Michael, ‘Isaiah Berlin in the Media’, Putney Debater (blog), 4 August 2009

Crowder, George, ‘Pluralism, Liberalism and Distributive Justice’, San Diego Law Review 46 no. 4 (2009), 773–802

Crowder, George, ‘Thunder vs Enlightenment’, Political Theory 36 no. 1 (2009), 161–6

~ Dénes, Iván Zoltán, Conservative Ideology in the Making (Budapest/New York, 2009: Central European University Press)

Ferrell, Jason, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Liberalism and Pluralism in Theory and Practice’, Contemporary Political Theory 8 (2009), 295–316; awarded the Contemporary Political Theory Prize for the best article of 2009; abstract

Fraser, Nick, ‘Isaiah Berlin: The Free Thinker’, Independent, 28 May 2009, 14–15

Galston, William A., ‘Moral Pluralism and Liberal Democracy: Isaiah Berlin’s Heterodox Liberalism’, Review of Politics 71 no. 1 (2009), 85–99; a valuable overview of much of IB’s thought

Goldstein, Evan, ‘Isaiah Berlin, Beyond the Wit’, Chronicle of Higher Education, 9 November 2009

Goldstein, Evan, ‘Sir Isaiah’s Modest Zionism’, Haaretz, 7 June 2009

Groß, Steffen W., and Athanassios Pitsoulis, ‘Ist “Freiheit” als “negative Freiheit” ausreichend bestimmt? Die Positionen Friedrich August von Hayeks und Isaiah Berlins im Kontrast sowie ein Vorschlag zur Diskussion’, Ordo 60 (2009), 23–51

Hanley, Monika, ‘Berlin Centennial Raises Jewish and Intellectual Awareness’, Baltic Times, 28 May to 3 June 2009, 8

Herschthal, Eric, ‘The New Berlin?’, The Jewish Week, 18 August 2009 (full of mistakes)

~ Inglis, Fred, History Man: The Life of R. G. Collingwood (Princeton, N.J., and Woodstock: Princeton University Press)

Ivry, Benjamin, ‘Isaiah Berlin at 100’, Jewish Daily Forward, 1 September 2009

Kamimori, Ryo, ‘Infure shugi to defure shugi ni tsuite’ [‘on Inflationism and Deflationism’], Shagakuken ronshu [Waseda Journal of Social Sciences] Vo. 13 (2009), 17–31

Lassalle, José María, ‘Seductor de las ideas’, ABCD, 6 June 2009, 14–15

Lisle, Nicola, ‘The Gossiping Intellectual’, Oxford Times, 20 August 2009

Massot, Josep, ‘Isaiah Berlin: Antídoto de liberticidas’, La Vanguardia, 6 June 2009, 44–5

Moore, Matthew J., ‘Pluralism, Relativism, and Liberalism’, Political Research Quarterly 62 no. 2 (June 2009), 244–56 (published online 8 July 2008)

Pirie, Madsen, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, in his 101 Great Philosophers: Makers of Modern Thought (London and New York, 2009: Continuum), 187–8

Pozdnyakova, T. S., ‘Problemy biografii i tvorchestva A. Akhmatovoi’, in Anna Akhmatova: epokha, sud´ba, tvorchestvo (Krimskii Akhmatovskii nauchnyi sbornik, issue 7) (Simferopol´, 2009: Krimskii Archiv), 3–30

Qian, Yongxiang/Sechin Y.-S. Chien, Bolin de wenti jiqi liangnan [Berlin’s Problem and Dilemma], interview with Suli Liu, SOHO Xiaobao no. 103 (2009 no. 7, 10 August 2009)

Qian and Liu discuss IB’s main concerns: pluralism and monism. The most basic problem IB raised is that of pluralism. The political experience of the 20th century led IB to examine the dangers of monism and the importance of pluralism. Had IB solved the problem of pluralism? Does IB’s pluralism lead to relativism? Leo Strauss said so. Qian says IB’s problem still needs to be solved: it is not straightforward and can’t be disposed of as easily as Strauss claims. Although IB didn’t give us a completely satisfactory answer, the pluralism he draws attention to (like Weber’s) is still an important problem, and it crops up everywhere. The mainstream of political theorists has accepted the fact of pluralism. Qian quotes IB as saying that there really is a universal human nature. Its existence cannot be proved logically, however, but it really does matter. If we deny it, we shall really become relativists, and be unable to think and live. Qian agrees with IB on this. He also believes that, as Lecky wrote in The History of European Morals, human nature is gradually improving; or, as he wrote in another essay, he also agrees with Steven Pinker in The Better Angels of Our Nature (see Pinker 2011 below).

Reed, Jamie, ‘The Continuing Challenge of Isaiah Berlin’s Political Thought’, European Journal of Political Theory 8 no. 2, 253–373 September 2009

Ricciardi, Mario, ‘I contrappesi della libertà nel testamento di Isaiah Berlin’, Il nuovo riformista, 6 June 2009, 17

Rubirola i Torrent, Miquel, ‘Isaiah Berlin: El valor de les idees’ [‘Isaiah Berlin: The Power of Ideas’], Relleu 102 (October–December 2009), 6–29

Various authors, Isaiah Berlin, Value Pluralism, and the Law, the 2009 Editor’s Symposium, San Diego Law Review 46 no. 4 (November–December 2009):

Various authors, ‘O illuminado’, Folha de S. Paulo, 31 May 2009, Mais!, 4–7 (titles given are those in the print edition; online titles differ):

~ Vējš, Jānis, ‘Toleration – Analysis of the Concept’, in Latvijas Kristīgās Akadēmijas Zinātniskie raksti [Proceedings of the Latvian Christian Academy] 2 (2009), 162–70

Watson, George, ‘The Failure of History’, The Times Higher Education, 5 November 2009, 38, 40–1 (incorporates a review of SM)


Blattberg, Charles, ‘Taking Politics Seriously – But Not Too Seriously’, Social Science Research Network website

~ Bourke, James E, ‘Incommensurability and Deliberation: Prolegomena to Pluralist Politics’, Western Political Science Association 2010 Annual Meeting paper

Crowder, George, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, in M. Bevir (ed.), Encyclopedia of Political Theory (Los Angeles, 2010: Sage)

Crowder, George, ‘Isaiah Berlin, pluralismo y liberalismo’, in J. G. Ramirez (ed.), Isaiah Berlin: utopia, tragedia y pluralismo (Medellin, 2010: Universidad Eafit)

Crowder, George, ‘Pluralism’, in M. Bevir (ed.), Encyclopedia of Political Theory (Los Angeles, 2010: Sage)

Dubnov, Arie M., ‘Anti-Cosmopolitan Liberalism: Isaiah Berlin, Jacob Talmon and the Dilemma of National Identity’, Nations and Nationalism 16 no. 4 (October 2010), 559–78

Feinstein, Elaine, ‘Isaiah Berlin in Rome’ (poem), in Cities (Manchester, 2010: Carcanet); repr. in the Guardian, 19 June 2010

~ Michael N. Forster, After Herder: Philosophy of Language in the German Tradition (Oxford etc., 2010: Oxford University Press)

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Isaian Berlin no liberalizumu ni okeru yudaya teki na mono’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s Liberalism and Jewishness’], Doshisha hogaku [Doshisha Law Review] 63 no. 1 (2010), 443–474

Hardy, Henry, ‘Skeptical Isaiah Berlin’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 8 April 2010, 89–90

Hayden, John, ‘Chicha Michel, Isaiah Berlin ... Reflections on Palestine’

Kamimori, Ryo, Isaiah Berlin: Tagenshugi no. seiji tetsugaku [Isaiah Berlin: A Political Philosophy of Pluralism] (Tokyo, 2010: Shunjusha)

Khachaturian, Rafael, ‘Some Remarks on Isaiah Berlin’, in ‘Arguing the World’, a Dissent blog, 12 August 2010, 11.00 am

Kristof, Nicholas, ‘On Isaiah Berlin: 1. Explorer’, New York Review of Books, 25 February 2010, 26–7

Margalit, Avishai, ‘Home and Homeland: Isaiah Berlin’s Zionism’, Dissent 57 no. 3 (Summer 2010), 66–72

Myers, Ella, ‘From Pluralism to Liberalism: Rereading Isaiah Berlin’, Review of Politics 72 (2010), 599–625

Olssen, Mark, ‘Pluralism and Positive Freedom: Towards a Critique of Isaiah Berlin’, in id., Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Social Democracy: Thin Communitarian Perspectives on Political Philosophy and Education (New York and London, 2010: Routledge), 83–123

Östbring, Björn, ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Liberal Dilemma of Education’: explores Berlin’s views on education and school systems, with reference to the tension within liberalism between the values of autonomy and toleration

Patten, Alan, ‘ “The Most Natural State”: Herder and Nationalism’, History of Political Thought 31 no. 4 (2010), 657–89

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, ‘Traktat o wolnosci: rekonstrukcja i polemika’, Przegląd Polityczny no. 100 (2010), 190–212; contribution to ‘Co dalej? Dzieło Isaiaha Berlina’ [‘What next? Isaiah Berlin’s oeuvre’], ibid. 145–212:

Rosen, Charles, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Civilized Malice’, NYR Blog, 2 January 2010; comment by Ganpat Ram

Rosen, Charles, ‘On Isaiah Berlin: 2. Gossip’, New York Review of Books, 25 February 2010, 27–8

Talisse, R. B., ‘Does Value Pluralism Entail Liberalism?’, Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 no. 3 (2010), 303–20

~ Viroli, Maurizio, Machiavelli’s God, trans. Antony Shugaar (Princeton and Oxford, 2010: Princeton Unveristy Press), 3–5, disagrees with IB’s portayal of Machiavelli as a proponent of ‘pagan’ virtues

~ Williams, David Lay, ‘Political Ontology and Institutional Design in Montesquieu and Rousseau?’, American Journal of Political Science 54 (2010) 525–42

Williams, Rowan, ‘Faith and Enlightenment: Friends or Foes?’, the Annual Isaiah Berlin Lecture at the Hampstead Synagogue, Tuesday 16 November 2010


Armenteros, Carolina, and Richard A. Lebrun (eds), Joseph de Maistre and His European Readers: From Friedrich von Gentz to Isaiah Berlin (Studies in the History of Political Thought no. 5) (Leiden and New York, 2011: Brill)

Blattberg, Charles, ‘Dirty Hands’ and ‘Isaiah Berlin’ in Hugh LaFollette, John Deigh and Sarah Stroud (eds), International Encyclopedia of Ethics (Hoboken, NJ, and Oxford, forthcoming 2013: Wiley–Blackwell)

Bode, Mark, ‘Everything is What It Is, and Not Another Thing: Knowledge and Freedom in Isaiah Berlin’s Political Thought’, British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 no. 2 (2011), 305–26

Carlsmith, Joseph, ‘The Bed, the Map and the Butterfly: Isaiah Berlin’s Grand Strategy of Grand Strategy’, Yale undergraduate essay, posted on this site

Lai, Chen, and others, ‘Zhongguo duzhe weishenme fen Bolin?’ [‘Why do Chinese Readers Like Berlin?’], three interviews with Zhonghua dushubao [China Reading Weekly] no. 215, 18 May 2011, 9

Chen Lai, director of the Academy of Chinese Learning, Tsinghua University, specialist in Chinese philosophy: Although Rawls has been the most important political philosopher since the 1970s, IB is more popular in China. The distinction between IB’s two concepts of liberty has a shocking effect on Chinese people when they reflect on modern Chinese history. Besides, from the 1990s onwards liberalism became an important intellectual current in China, so it is very natural that Berlin’s philosophy should begin to be taken very seriously. In the 1980s there was a Max Weber boom, and in the new century there is a Berlin boom.

Hu Chuansheng, Jiangsu Province Academy of Social Sciences, translator of FEL: At the end of the 1990s there was a fierce argument in China between members of the New Left and Liberals. For the first time in modern Chinese history, Chinese intellectuals raised these issues and discussed them independently. At that moment, Berlin’s philosophy became a foreign resource. Because of the condition of liberty in China, his philosophy has a strong influence. Berlin’s impact on China comes less from his analysis of liberty than from his pluralism, which is more important.

Qian Yongxiang/Sechin Y.-S. Chien (see Qian 1997): IB’s style is different from Rawls’s analytic one. We could call IB a dialogic thinker. Although it is difficult to translate into Chinese, IB’s style is more acceptable to Chinese readers, and they can strongly identify with what he says. IB’s thought may not be systematic, but he has a strong sense of reality. If Chinese academics want to study Western thought, IB is a good place to start and they can learn a great deal from him.

Deighton, Anne, ‘Berlin in Moscow – Isaiah Berlin: Academia, Diplomacy and Britain’s Cultural Cold War’, OXPO [Oxford Sciences Po Research group] Working paper; published in Jacques P. Leider, Jean-Marie Majerus, Michel Polfer and Marc Schoentgen (eds), Du Luxembourg à l’Europe: hommages à Gilbert Trausch à l’occasion de son 80ème anniversaire (Luxembourg, 2011: Éditions Saint-Paul), 559–69

~ Choi, Naomi, ‘The Post-Analytic Roots of Humanist Liberalism’, History of European Ideas 31 (2011), 280–92

Della Casa, Alessandro, ‘Berlin lettore di Marx: pluralismo dei valori e natura umana’ (‘Berlin as a Reader of Marx: Value Pluralism and Human Nature’), Studi storici 3 (2011), 597–603; author’s English abstract:

The aim of this essay is to analyse the evolution of the Berlinian interpretation of Karl Marx’s philosophy. In his early Karl Marx: His Life and Environment (1939), Berlin, despite his opposition to the Russian Revolution, actually showed a sympathetic stance towards Marx’s philosophy. Berlin shared with Marx a denial of a universal and eternal shape of human nature, as well as anti-monistic tendencies. Berlin thus shows the discontinuity between Marx’s thought and Marxism. Nevertheless, beginning from his short visit to Russia in 1945, Berlin’s interpretation of Marx undergoes a change. After that time, Marx appears to Berlin as the major proponent of Western ‘philosophia perennis’ and as the ‘great monster’ embodying all the features of Soviet totalitarianism.

~ Dworkin, Ronald, Justice for Hedgehogs (Cambridge, Mass., 2011: Belknap/Harvard)

~ Gaddis, John Lewis, George F. Kennan: An American Life (London/New York, 2011: Allen Lane/Penguin Press), includes quotations and paraphrases from an interview with IB

Garrard, Graeme, ‘The War against the Enlightenment’, review of Zeev Sternhell, The Anti-Enlightenment Tradition, trans. David Maisel, and Tzvetan Todorov, In Defence of Enlightenment, trans. Gila Walker, European Journal of Political Theory 10 no. 2 (2011), 277–86

Gustavsson, Gina, ‘Freedom in Mass Values: Egocentric, Humanistic, or Both? Using Isaiah Berlin to Understand a Contemporary Debate’, European Political Science Review 3 no. 4 (2011)

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Isaiah Berlin ni yoru jiyū gainen no bunseki ni kansuru ichi kousatsu: Beata Polanowska-Sygulska no giron wo sozai to shite’ [‘Isaiah Berlin on the Concept of Liberty’], Doshisha hogaku [Doshisha Law Review] 63 no. 3 (2011), 19–67

Hausheer, Roger, ‘A Reply to Perry Anderson’ (1990)

Kakino Shingo, ‘Berlin no. jiyūron’ [‘Berlin on Liberty’], Tetsugakkaishi (Department of Philosophy, Gakushuin University) 35 (2011), 79–91

~ Lassman, Peter, Pluralism (Cambridge, 2011: Polity)

Liu, Dong, ‘Yuedu Bolin de shinian’ [‘Ten Years Reading Berlin’], interview with Zhonghua dushubao [China Reading Weekly] no. 215, 18 May 2011, 9: Liu, from Tsinghua University, was the organiser with the Yilin Press of the Isaiah Berlin and Contemporary China Symposium held in Beijing on 10–12 March 2001, and the chief editor of Renwen yu shehui yicong (The Humanities and Society Translation Series, published by Yilin)

How was IB introduced to the Chinese academic world, and how do Chinese read IB? FEL was the first book Liu recommended to the publisher Yilin, after which they became very interested in IB’s books and continue to publish him. The books have been welcomed by the market. So far Yilin has published about 90 books in Renwen yu shehui yicong (The Humanities and Society Translation Series), of which a tenth are by IB.

Because contemporary Chinese society is very materialistic and many people pursue only their own interests, IB‘s view on negative liberty seemed not to have much impact; indeed it was a more problematic idea in China than elsewhere. But at the same time IB offered the Chinese a really useful intellectual tool for the protection of their liberty against a repeat of the cultural revolution.

If you read IB simply as a liberal political philosopher, maybe he has already been superseded by Rawls. But if you read him as a pluralist and a cross-cultural historian of ideas, he has a lot to say to Chinese readers, who feel that IB writes at their level, so that they can conduct a more active dialogue with him. The strong influence of the Soviet Union on the history of modern China is another reason for the great popularity of IB’s books.

Mendes Silva, Elisabete, ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Anglo-American Predicament’, in Adelaide Meiras Serras (ed.), Empire Building and Modernity (Lisbon, 2011: University of Lisbon Centre for English Studies)

~ Müller, Jan-Werner, Contesting Democracy: Political Ideas in Twentieth-Century Europe (New Haven, 2011: Yale University Press)

Pettit, Philip, ‘The Instability of Freedom as Noninterference: The Case of Isaiah Berlin’, Ethics 121 no. 4 (July 2011), 693–716; makes a strong argument for freedom as non-domination, without apparently making clear why domination cannot be regarded as just one of the forms of interference absent in the case of freedom as non-interference; there are many ways in which others can and do limit my freedom, and one of them is by being in a position to dominate me.

~ Pinker, Steven, The Better Angels of our Nature: Why Violence has Declined (New York, 2011: Viking), 186–7

Ramachandran, Nandini, ‘Mystic Myna: Conversations with Dead Folk’

~ Schmidt, James, ‘Inventing a Counter-Enlightenment: Liberalism, Nihilism, and Totalitarianism’, American Historical Association, Boston, January 2011; especially the preamble and section IV, ‘Resisting the Enlightenment’

~ Sikka, Sonia, Herder on Humanity and Cultural Difference: Enlightened Relativism (Cambridge, 2011: Cambridge Univeristy Press)

Aung San Suu Kyi on Berlin

In her first 2011 Reith Lecture, on Liberty, broadcast on 28 June 2011, Aung San Suu Kyi said:

‘Whenever I was asked at the end of each stretch of house arrest how it felt to be free, I would answer that I felt no. different, because my mind had always been free. I have spoken out often of the inner freedom that comes out from following a course in harmony with one’s conscience. Isaiah Berlin warned against the dangers of the internalisation of freedom. He said: “Spiritual freedom, like moral victory, must be distinguished from a more fundamental sense of freedom, and a more ordinary sense of victory, otherwise there will be a danger of confusion in theory and justification of oppression in practice, in the name of liberty itself” [Liberty, p. 32].

‘There is certainly a danger that the acceptance of spiritual freedom as a satisfactory substitute for all other freedoms could lead to passivity and resignation. But an inner sense of freedom can reinforce a practical drive for the more fundamental freedoms, in the form of human rights and rule of law. Buddhism teaches that the ultimate liberation is liberation from all desire. It could be argued, therefore, that the teachings of the Buddha are inimical to movements that are based on the desire for freedom in the form of human rights and political reform. However, when the Buddhist monks of Burma went on a metta – that is, lovingkindness – march in 2007, they were protesting against the sudden steep rise in the price of fuel that had led to a devastating rise in food prices. They were using the spiritual authority to move for the basic right of the people to affordable food. The belief in spiritual freedom does not have to mean an indifference to the practical need for the basic rights and freedoms that are generally seen as necessary that human beings may live like human beings.’

~ Syrjämäki, Sami. ‘Sins of a Historian: Perspectives on the Problem of Anachronism’, PhD thesis, University of Helsinki, 2011

Vējš, J. N., ‘Jesaja Berlins – ideju vēsturnieks, filozofs’ [‘Isaiah Berlin – Historian of Ideas, Philosopher’], Latvijas Zinātņu Akadēmija Vēstis, Part A, Humanities and Social Sciences, 65 (2011) nos 5/6, 53–65

Wang, Qian Chugoku ga yonda gendai shiso: Sartre kara Derrida, Schmitt, Rawls made [How does China understand modern thought?: From Sartre to Derrida, Schmitt and Rawls] (Tokyo, 2011: Kodansha); examines the reception of modern and post-modern thought in China since the end of the Cultural Revolution; chapter 12 discusses Berlin, Hayek and Rawls, and their conceptions of liberty and justice

~ Wang, Zuoliang, ‘The Twentieth Century’ (part 2), chapter 8 of Yingguo sanwen de liubian [The Development of the English Essay], 2nd ed. (Beijing, 2011: Shangwu Yinshuguan [The Commercial Press]), 307–11

Analyses IB’s jargon-free essayistic style, using his letter to the The Times Literary Supplement replying to Gabriel Josipovici (16–22 February 1990, 171) as a text. Quotes (311) Wilson’s letter about IB (6 June 1949 to Mamaine Koestler): ‘we spent the whole time talking brilliantly, covering rapidly, but with astonishing knowledge, sure intelligence, and breathtaking wit, an incredible variety of subjects’. Wang (1916–95) was one of the best Chinese humanists of the twentieth century – a famous poet and an admired scholar of English literature who translated many English poems into Chinese, and wrote a number of books on English literature. He was a student of William Empson when Empson taught in China during the Sino-Japanese war. After the war, from 1947 to 1949, he studied at Merton College, Oxford.

Yamaoka Ryuichi, ‘Shokyokuteki jiyū to sekkyokuteki jiyū: I. Berlin, Futatsu no. jiū gainen’ [‘Negative Liberty and Positive Liberty: I. Berlin, Two Concepts of Liberty’], in S. Inoue and K. Ito (eds), Seiji/ Kenryoku/ Koukyousei [Politics/ Power/ Publicness] (Kyoto, 2011: Sekaishisosha)

Zitzewitz, Josephine von, ‘That’s How It Was: New Theories on Anna Akhmatova and Isaiah Berlin, Her “Guest from the Future” ’, The Times Literary Supplement, 9 September 2011, 14–15


~ Aaltonen, Pirjo, Anna Ahmatova: Fontankan talossa [Anna Ahhmatova: Fountain House] (Helsinki, 2012: Into Kustannus Oy), 52–60

Della Casa, Alessandro, ‘Il liberalsocialismo di Berlin’, Mondoperaio 10 (2012), 57–9

Dubnov, Arie, ‘Freiheit’ [Freedom], in Dan Diner (ed.), Enzyklopädie jüdischer Geschichte und Kultur [Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture], (Stuttgart/Weimar: J. B. Metzler for the Saxonian Academy of Sciences in Leipzig, 2011–13), vol. 2 (2012), 378–382; mostly about IB’s ideas

Dubnov, Arie, ‘What is Jewish (If Anything) about Isaiah Berlin’s Philosophy?’, Religions 3 (2012), 289–319; repr. in shorter form as ‘Diaspora, Jewishness, and Difference in Isaiah Berlin’s Thought’ in Brian M. Smollett and Christian Wiese (eds), Reappraisals and New Studies of the Modern Jewish Experience: Essays in Honor of Robert M. Seltzer (Leiden and Boston, 2015: Brill), 207–34

Dubow, J., ‘A Therapeutics of Exile: Isaiah Berlin, Liberal Pluralism and the Psyche of Assimilation’, Environment and Planning A 44 no. 10 (2012), 2463–76

Epstein, Joseph, ‘Isaiah Berlin: A Charmed Life’, in Essays in Biography (Mount Jackson, 2012: Axios Press), 355–66

Ferrell, Jason, ‘Isaiah Berlin as Essayist’, Political Theory 40 (2012), 602–28

Gambescia, Carlo, Liberalismo triste: un percorso: da Burke a Berlin (Piombino, 2012: Il Foglio)

Hacohen, Malachi Haim, ‘Berlin and Popper between Nation and Empire: Diaspora, Cosmopolitanism and Jewish Life’, Jewish Historical Studies 44 (2012), 51–74

~ Harris, Robert, ‘Alexander Herzen: Writings on the Man and His Thought’, in Alexander Herzen, A Herzen Reader, ed. and trans. Kathleen Parthé, with a crtical essay by Robert Harris (Evanston, Illinois, 2012: Northwestern University Press), 349–50 (notes 365–6)

~ Ignatieff, Michael, ‘Reimagining a Global Ethic’, Ethics and International Affairs, 1 April 2012

~ Judt, Tony, with Timothy Snyder, Thinking the Twentieth Century (London, 2012: William Heinemann; New York, 2012: Penguin Press), xvii, 55–6, 132, 196, 308, 317–18

Mason, Addis, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Russian Thinkers and the Argument for Inclusion’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 13 no. 1 (Winter 2012), 188–200; excerpt here

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Isaiah Berlin ga kataru nashonarizumu to sionizumu: J. G. Herder kara Moses Hess made’ [‘Isaiah Berlin on Nationalism and Zionism: From J. G. Herder to Moses Hess’], Seiji tetsugaku [Political Philosophy] no. 13 (2012), 70–106

Senelle, Robert, and others, ‘Comments’ [on ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’] in eid. (eds), The Road to Political Democracy: From Plato to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (Brussels, 2012: Academic and Scientific Publishers), 808–13

Siame, Chisanga N., ‘Relativism in Berlin’s Cultural Pluralism’, Theoria 59 no. 130 (March 2012), 42–58

Sorabji, Richard, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Stoic Revolution: Depoliticization’, chapter 12 of Gandhi and the Stoics: Modern Experiments on Ancient Values (Oxford, 2012: Oxford University Press)

von Bismarck, Helene, ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Humanity of History’, The British Scholar Society, 29 November 2012

~ Wells, Gully, The House in France: A Memoir (London, 2012: Bloomsbury): brief references on 21, 163, 212, 280, 284


Albert, Simon, ‘The Wartime “Special Relationship” 1941–45: Isaiah Berlin, Freya Stark and Mandate Palestine’, Jewish Historical Studies 45 (2013), 103–30

Butin, Alexis, ‘Espace de transparence et société décente selon Isaiah Berlin’, Alphée 5 (March 2013), 58–63

Cherniss, Joshua L., ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Thought and Its Legacy: Critical Reflections on a Symposium’, European Journal of Political Theory 12 no. 1 (January 2013), 5–23

~ Crowder, George, ‘Communitarianism and Liberalism’, in Gregory Claeys (ed.), Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought (Washington, DC, 2013: CQ Press)

Crowder, George, ‘Justification and Psychology in Liberal Pluralism: A Reply to Zakaras’, Review of Politics 75 no. 1 (2013), 103–10

Crowder, George, ‘Multiculturalism, Liberalism and Value Pluralism’, in Sophie de Latour and Peter Balint (eds), Liberal Multiculturalism and the Fair Terms of Integration (Basingstoke, 2013: Palgrave Macmillan)

Crowder, George, ‘Pluralism’, in F. D’Agostino and J. Gaus (eds), The Routledge Companion to Political and Social Philosophy (London, 2013: Routledge)

Crowder, George, Theories of Multiculturalism: An Introduction (Cambridge, 2013: Polity); chapter 7, ‘Value Pluralists’ discusses IB and other pluralists

Deighton, Anne, ‘Don and Diplomat: Isaiah Berlin and Britain’s Early Cold War’, Cold War History 13 (2013) no. 4, 525–40; abstract

Delannoi, Gil, ‘Deux aspects complémentaires de la liberté: une relecture d’Isaiah Berlin’, Annuaire de l’Institut Michel Villey 5 (2013), 143–61

~ Farndale, Nigel, ‘Dinner with Maggie’, Observer Magazine, 8 December 2013, 22–6

~ Freedman, Lawrence, Strategy: A History (New York, 2013: Oxford University Press), 613–14 (discusses ‘Political Judgement’)

Galston, William, ‘Between Logic and Psychology: The Links between Value Pluralism and Liberal Theory’, Review of Politics 75 no. 1 (2013), 97–101

Giorgini, Giovanni, ‘Three Visions of Liberty: John Stuart Mill, Isaiah Berlin, Quentin Skinner’, chapter 9 of Kyriakos N. Demetriou and Antis Loizides (eds), John Stuart Mill: A British Socrates (London, 2013: Palgrave Macmillan)

Hiruta, Kei, ‘Berlin: Tagenshugi to Jiyu’ [‘Berlin: Pluralism and Freedom’], in Masaki Nakmasa (ed.), Seijisisho no. Chie: Machiavelli kara Sandel made [Wisdom of Political Thought: from Machiavelli to Sandel] (Kyoto, 2013: Horitsu Bunka Sha), 157–73

~ Holzman, Michael, Guy Burgess: Revolutionary in an Old School Tie, 2nd ed. (New York, 2013: Chelmsford Press)

Kis, Janos, ‘Berlin’s Two Concepts of Positive Liberty’, European Journal of Political Theory 12 no. 1 (2013), 31–48

Lilla, Mark, ‘Isaiah Berlin Against the Current’, New York Review of Books, 25 April 2013 (repr. of foreword to AC2)

Miller, David, ‘Political Theory, Philosophy, and the Social Sciences: Five Chichele Professors’, in Christopher Hood, Desmond King and Gillian Peele (eds), Forging a Discipline: A Critical Assessment of Oxford’s Development of Politics and International Relations in Comparative Perspective (Oxford, 2013: Oxford University Press), 165–83

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Isaiah Berlin ga kataru Nationalism to Zionism: J. G. Hamman kara Moses Hess made’ [‘Isaiah Berlin on Nationalism and Zionism: From J. G. Herder to Moses Hess’], in Seiji tetsugaku [Political Philosophy] no. 13 (2012), 70–106

~ Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Seijiteki jiyū: gainen no. “Igirisuteki” bunmyaku wo megutte’ [‘Political Freedom: on the “British” Context of the Concept’], in Paul Kelly and Seishi Sato (eds), Tagenshugi to tabunkashugi no. Aida: gendai igirisu seijisisou kenkyu [Between Pluralism and Multiculturalism: Studies in Contemporary British Political Thought] (Waseda University Press, 2013), 215–; part of this article discusses Berlin’s ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, especially its philosophical character and historical context

Peters, Matthew, ‘ “I Am Slowly Taking Against the Great Writer”: Isaiah Berlin’s Reading of Henry James’, Literary Imagination 15 no. 1 (March 2013), 65–73

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, ‘John Gray and the Implications of Value Pluralism for Legal Philosophy’, 25th IVR World Congress: Law, Science and Technology, Frankfurt am Main, 15–20 August 2011, Paper Series, no. 096/2012, Series B (6 pp.)

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata, Między filozofią polityczną a filozofią prawa [Between Political Philosophy and the Philosophy of Law] (Kraków, 2012 [sc. 2013]: Księgarnia Akademicka); a collection of essays which has a good deal to say about Berlin

Raphael, Frederic, and Epstein, Joseph, Distant Intimacy: A Friendship in the Age of the Internet (New Haven and London, 2013: Yale University Press); contains wonderfully catty comments on IB

Riley, Jonathan, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s “Minimum of Common Moral Ground” ’, Political Theory 41 no. 1 (2013), 61–89. This important paper is a definitive milestone in Berlin studies. Riley has an uncannily accurate perception of what IB believed, even when IB doesn’t express it clearly himself. He raises and answers convincingly a number of questions which must surely bother anyone who reads IB with care. In particular he gives the first satisfying account of IB’s apparently paradoxical claim that pluralists can empathise with conduct that they nevertheless wish to resist, if necessary to the death.

Ryan, Alan, ‘Isaiah Berlin: The History of Ideas as Psychodrama’, European Journal of Political Theory 12 no. 1 (2013), 24–30

Sanfey, Michael, ‘Machiavelli: The Enduring Lure of an Evil Genius’, Irish Times, 10 December 2013

Vējš, Jānis N., ‘National Identity: Some Cues from Isaiah Berlin’, in Ethnicity: Ethnic Diversity and Ethnic Studies 1 (2013) no. 8, 31–9

Walzer, Michael, ‘Should We Reclaim Political Utopianism?’, European Journal of Political Theory 12 no. 1 (2013), 61–73

Yack, Bernard, ‘The Significance of Isaiah Berlin’s Counter-Enlightenment’, European Journal of Political Theory 12 no. 1 (2013), 49–60

Zakaras, Alex, ‘A Liberal Pluralism: Isaiah Berlin and John Stuart Mill’, Review of Politics 75 no. 1 (2013), 69–96

Zakaras, Alex, ‘Reply to Galston and Crowder’, Review of Politics 75 no. 1 (2013), 111–14


Chamberlain, Lesley, ‘Isaiah Berlin and the Policeman’, blog post

Cherniss, Joshua, ‘Against “Engineers of Human Souls”: Isaiah Berlin’s Anti-Managerial Liberalism’, History of Political Thought 35 no. 3 (Autumn 2014), 565–88

Crowder, George, ‘Conflicting Pluralisms’ (review of Arie M. Dubnov, Isaiah Berlin: The Journey of a Jewish Liberal, Peter Lassman, Pluralism, and Christopher McMahon, Reasonable Disagreement: A Theory of Political Morality), European Journal of Political Theory 13 (2014), 488–96

~ Crowder, George, ‘Value Pluralism, Diversity and Liberalism’, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 18 no. 1 (forthcoming February 2015), 16 pp.; published online 20 September 2014

~ Crowder, George, ‘Value Pluralism and Monotheism’, Politics and Religion 7 no. 4 (December 2014), 818–40

~ Davidzon, Vladislav, ‘Grande Dame of London Literary World Dies at 99’, Tablet, 10 September 2014 (online)

Devellennes, Charles, ‘Choice, Blind Spots and Free Will: An Autopoietic Critique of Isaiah Berlin’s Liberalism’, Philosophy and Social Criticism, 40 no. 9 (November 2014), 895–911

Gustavsson, Gina, ‘The Psychological Dangers of Positive Liberty: Reconstructing a Neglected Undercurrent in Isaiah Berlin’s “Two Concepts of Liberty” ’, Review of Politics 76 (2014), 267–91; reply by George Crowder, ‘Why We Need Positive Liberty’, ibid. 77 no. 2, 271–8; Gina Gustavsson, ‘Reply to Crowder’, ibid. 279–4

Herken, Bregg, The Georgetown Set: Friends and Rivals in Cold War Washington (New York, 2014: Knopf); numerous references to IB

Hiruta, Kei, ‘The Meaning and Value of Freedom: Berlin Contra Arendt’, The European Legacy: Toward New Paradigms 19 (2014) no. 7, 854–68 (published online 30 September 2014); abstract

Jahanbegloo, Ramin, ‘Two Concepts of Pluralism: A Comparative Study of Mahatma Gandhi and Isaiah Berlin’, Philosophy and Social Criticism 41 nos 4–5 (May–June 2015), 383–91

Kaminskaya, Anna, ‘Angliiskaya “akhmatovka”: iz dnevnika’ [‘English “Akhmatoviana”: From a diary’], Zvezda 2014 no. 6; notes on Akhmatova’s trip to England in June 1965

Kibe, Takashi, ‘Berlin no. Herzen ron: Kojin, Jiyu, Genjitsu Kankaku’ [‘Berlin on Herzen: The Individual, Freedom and the Sense of Reality’], Roshia Shisoshi Kenkyu [Study of the History of Ideas in Russia] 5 (2014), 3–27; includes synopsis in Russian

(in Chinese) Ma Hualing, ‘Pluralism and Relativism: The Debate between Isaiah Berlin and Leo Strauss’, Academic Monthly 46 no. 2 (February 2014), 32–40; ends with abstract in English

Mendes Silva, Elisabete, ‘Liberal Imperialism and the Origins of Israel: The Position of Isaiah Berlin’, in Ana Cristina Mendes and Cristina Baptista (eds), Reviewing Imperial Conflicts (Newcastle, 2014: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), 194–203

Mori, Tatsuya, ‘Isaiah Berlin no. Paresuthina: liberaru sionisuto no. shouzou’ [‘Isaiah Berlin’s Palestine: Portrayal of a Liberal Zionist’], Seiji tetsugaku [Political Philosophy] 17 (2014), 30–67

Munro, Doug, ‘The “Intrusion” of Personal Feelings: Biographical Dilemmas’, Flinders Journal of History and Politics 30 (2014), 3–20; includes discussion of David Caute’s Isaac and Isaiah

Ricciardi, Mario, ‘Libertà, pluralismo e liberalismo: la lezione di Isaiah Berlin’, in Richard Bernstein, Salvatore Veca and Mario Ricciardi, Omnia mutantur: la scoperta filosofica del pluralismo culturale (Venice, 2014: Marsilio)

[Rubin, Eli,] ‘The Berlins of Oxford and Their Opposing Origins in Tsarist Russia’, Chabad-Revisited, 11 September 2014

Rubin, Eli, ‘Squaring the Circle of Faith: The Hedgehog, the Fox, and the Divine Masquerade of Otherness’, Ḥakirah 17 (Summer 2014), 89–104

Sīmanis, Dāvis, ‘Nuclear Breakout: Director Dāvis Sīmanis arranges a Meeting between Sergei Eisenstein and Isaiah Berlin’, Rīga 2014: European Capital of Culture Programme, Spring/Summer edition, 13; on the film Escaping Riga

Waldron, Jeremy, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Neglect of Enlightenment Constitutionalism’, draft of a keynote address to a conference on ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Enlightenment’ held 20–22 March 2014 at Wolfson College, Oxford

Qian, Wang, ‘Berlin no. keimohihan ha machigatteita?’ [‘Was Berlin’s critique of the Enlightenment mistaken?’], Mirai no. 573 (June 2014), 6–9; reports the conference on ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Enlightenment’ held 20–22 March 2014 at Wolfson College, Oxford

Qian, Wang, ‘Bolin pipan qimeng picuole?’ [‘Is Berlin’s critique of the Enlightenment incorrect?’], Sixiang [Reflection] no. 26 (October 2014), 275–88; reports the conference on ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Enlightenment’ held 20–22 March 2014 at Wolfson College, Oxford, focusing on the presentations by Jeremy Waldron, T. J. Reed, Michael Ignatieff and Hermione Lee; also discusses whether the Enlightenment is still relevant to China (recently many Chinese scholars have drawn critical attention to the problems raised by the Enlightenment, arguing that it is an outdated idea for China; the author defends the Enlightenment)

Winham, Ilya, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Pelagian Soul: Response to Riley’, Political Theory 42 no. 3 (June 2014), 338–44


Athanassios, Pitsoulis and Groß, Steffen W., ‘“The other side of the argument”: Isaiah Berlin versus F. A. Hayek on Liberty, Public Policies and the Market’, Constitutional Political Economy 26 no. 4 (December 2015), 475–94

Bezuglov, Dima, (in Russian) ‘Berlin in Love’ (on the Russian translation of MN)

Blitz, Mark, ‘An Affirmative Defense of the Liberal Tradition’, Library of Law & Liberty (2015)

Caradonna, Jeremy L., and others, ‘Roundtable Discussion: Was There a Counter-Enlightenment?’, Eighteenth-Century Studies 49 no. 1 (Fall 2015), 51–88

~ Kahn, Victoria, , ‘To Speak What He Thinks’, review of Hilary Gatti, Ideas of Liberty in Early Modern Europe from Machiavelli to Milton, The Times Literary Supplement, 2 September 2015, 00

~ Lee, Hermione, ‘ “From Memory”: Literary Encounters and Life-Writing’, in Zachary Leader (ed.), On Life-Writing (Oxford, 2015: Oxford University Press), 124–41; about IB’s encounter with Anna Akhmatova

~ Lofthouse, Richard, ‘Forget Your Delusions and be Happy’, interview with John Gray, Oxford Today 28 no. 1 (Michaelmas Term 2015), 35–7

MacInnis, Luke, ‘Two Concepts of Monism: Axiomatic and Asymptotic’, Review of Politics 77 (2015) 603–35

~ Mulligan, Thomas, ‘The Limits of Liberal Tolerance’, Public Affairs Quarterly 29 no. 3 (July 2015), 277–95; proposes a bold and simple solution to the vexed question of the relationship between pluralism and liberalism; abstract

Müller, Jan-Werner, ‘An Association for Amiable Adventurers: On Oakeshott’s Peculiar Constitutionalism’, in Terry Nardin (ed.), Michael Oakeshott's Cold War Liberalism (Basingstoke, 2015: Palgrave Macmillan)

Neill, Edmund, ‘Oakeshott, Modernity, and Cold War Liberalism’, in Terry Nardin (ed.), Michael Oakeshott's Cold War Liberalism (Basingstoke, 2015: Palgrave Macmillan)

Percy, Antony, ‘Isaiah Berlin: The Undercover Egghead’, History Today 65 no. 9 (September 2015), 51–7

Vatolin, Igor', ‘Den' Berlina: za svobodu i raznoobrazie v delakh chelovecheskikh’ (‘Berlin Day: For Freedom and Variety in Human Affairs’: interview with Henry Hardy), Telegraf, November 2015, 56–64

Zaytseva, Elena (ed.), Akhmatova, Anrep, Berlin, catalogue of an exhibition at Pushkin House, London, 5 February to 29 April 2015 (London [2015], Puskhkin House)


Cherniss, Joshua, ‘Isaiah Berlin’, in John Stone and others (eds), The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Nationalism (Chichester, 2016: Wiley-Blackwell)

~ Craitu, Aurelian, Faces of Moderation: The Art of Balance in an Age of Extremes (Philadelphia, 2016: University of Pennsylvania Press)

Crowder, George, ‘After Berlin: The Literature since 2002’, published on this site

Hama, Shinichiro , ‘Berlin Jiyuron no Gensen: “Shusaku (torso) to shite no ‘Roman Shugi Jidai no Seiji Shiso’ ” ’ [‘The Origin of Berlin’s Argument about Liberty: Political Ideas in the Romantic Age as Torso’], Doshisha Hogaku [The Doshisha Law Review] 68 no. 2 (2016), 1–27

Hama, Shinichiro , ‘Berlin “Jiyu to Sono Uragiri” wo Yomu’ [‘Reading Isaiah Berlin’s Freedom and Its Betrayal’], Doshisha Hogaku [The Doshisha Law Review] 68 no. 3 (2016), 103–34

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Berlin no Shisoshi Kenkyu no Kihon Kozo: Seiyo Seiji Shisoshi Kenkyu ni okeru Mittsu no Tenkanten to Han Keimosyugi’ [‘The Basic Structure of Berlin’s Study of the History of Ideas: Three Turning-Points in the Study of Western Political Thought and the Counter-Enlightenment’], Doshisha Hogaku [The Doshisha Law Review] 68 no. 4 (2016), 113–50

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Berlin no Sehisoshi Kenkyu no Houhou: Bunkashi ni kansuru Giron wo Sozai to shite’ [‘The Methodology of Berlin’s Study of the History of Ideas: Focusing on His Argument about Cultural History’], Doshisha Hogaku [The Doshisha Law Review] 68 no. 5 (2016), 77–101

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Berlin ni okeru Jiyu to Ketteiron ni tsuite: “Rekishi no Hitsuzensei” (1953) tono Kanren wo humaete’ [‘Berlin on Freedom and Determinism in His “Historical Inevitability” (1953)’], Doshisha Hogaku [The Doshisha Law Review] 68 no. 6 (2016), 43–66

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Berlin Jiyuron no Keisei: Rousseau to Kant no Kaishaku wo megutte’ [‘The Early Formation of Berlin’s Argument about Liberty: With Reference to His Arguments about Rousseau and Kant’], in T. Tsunoda, Y. Ichihara and H. Kamemoto (eds), Horiron wo meguru Gendaiteki Syomondai [Current Issues in Legal Theory] (Kyoto, 2016: Koyoshobo)

Herman, David, ‘In Today’s Turbulent World We Need Berlin’s Children’, Standpoint, May 2016

Hiruta, Kei, ‘An “Anti-Utopian Age?”: Isaiah Berlin’s England, Hannah Arendt’s America, and Utopian Thinking in Dark Times’, Journal of Political Ideologies, published online 18 November 2016, in print 22 (2017) no. 1, 12–29

Kemper, Nicholas, ‘The Hideous Duty of Isaiah Berlin’, AA Files no. 72 (2016), 127–33; on the choice of architects for Wolfson College, Oxford

Kobrin, Kirill, (in Russian) ‘The Redundant Authors of Russian Liberalism’, Nastoyashchee vremya, published online 2016

~ Mancosu, Paolo, Zhivago’s Secret Journey: From Typescript to Book (Stanford, 2016: Hoover Institution Press); contains extensive discussion of Berlin’s role in the transmission of the text and the publication of the book

Schmidt, James, ‘Robert Wokler, J. G. A. Pocock, and the Hunt for an Eighteenth-Century Usage of “Counter-Enlightenment” ’, Persistent Enlightenment (blog), 12 October 2016; see also other posts, discoverable by searching for ‘Isaiah Berlin’

Smith, Steven B., ‘The Tragic Liberalism of Isaiah Berlin’, chapter 13 (267–89) of Modernity and Its Discontents: Making and Unmaking the Bourgeois from Machiavelli to Bellow (New Haven and London, 2016: Yale University Press); IB is also mentioned elsewhere in the book

Tamir, Yuli, ‘Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997): Unpretentious Passion’, in Jacques Picard, Jacques Revel, Michael P. Steinberg, Idith Zertal (eds), Makers of Jewish Modernity: Thinkers, Artists, Leaders, and the World They Made (Princeton, 2016: Princeton University Press), 480–92

~ Tīrons, Uldis, ‘Naiman kak Nikto: s poetom Anatoliem Naimanom beseduet Uldis Tirons’, Rīgas Laiks (Russian edition), Summer 2016, 70–81; interview with Anatoly Naiman, who gave the Isaiah Berlin Lecture in Riga on 9 June 2016; Latvian translation, ‘Naimans kā Neviens: ar dzejnieku Anatoliju Naimanu sarunajas Uldis Tīrons’, Rīgas Laiks (Latvian edition), June 2016, 20–31; a Latvian translation of an except from Naiman’s Ser follows


Butin, Alexis, ‘Isaiah Berlin: A Twentieth-Century Thinker’, published on this site, and based on a paper presented at an international seminar on IB’s negative and positive freedom on 29 May 2017 at Université Paris II

Butin, Alexis, ‘Isaiah Berlin: un intellectuel britannique engagé pour la liberté’, Mentalities/Mentalités 29 no. 4 (2017), 12 pp.

Cherniss, Joshua L., ‘Liberal Understanding for Troubled Times: Isaiah Berlin’s Insights and Our Moment of Populist Revolt’, Critique, 15 January 2017 (online)

Cherniss, Joshua L., ‘Isaiah Berlin: Russo-Jewish Roots, Liberal Commitments, and the Ethos of Pluralism’, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, published online 7 February 2017

Hama, Shinichiro, ‘Berlin “Hutatsu no Jiyu Gainen” no Genkei’ [‘The Original Model of Berlin’s “Two Concepts of Liberty” ’], in K. Nakamura, T. Kiriyama and K. Yamamoto (eds), Shakai Henkaku to Shakai Kagaku [Social Change and Social Science] (Kyoto, 2017: Showado)

Hardy, Henry, ‘Isaiah Berlin el hombre’ [‘Isaiah Berlin the Man’], Cuadernos de pensamiento político no. 54 (April/June 2017), 33–41

Jay, Martin, ‘Walter Benjamin and Isaiah Berlin: Modes of Jewish Intellectual Life in the Twentieth Century’, Critical Inquiry 43 no. 3 (Spring 2017), 719–37


Cherniss, Joshua L., and Steven B. Smith (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Isaiah Berlin (New York, forthcoming 2018: Cambridge University Press)

[1] Mark Thompson, ‘Versions of Pluralism: William Empson, Isaiah Berlin, and the Cold War’, is reprinted from volume 8, number 1 (Spring 2006) of Literary Imagination: The Review of the Association of Literary Scholars and Critics, copyright 2006. Used by permission of the Association of Literary Scholars and Critics. [back]

This catalogue excludes reviews (which are listed with the books they address), the introductions to my collections of his essays, and the contents of the English Festschrifts; it includes all items indexed under IB in the Philosopher’s Index

[API] = abstract in the Philosopher’s Index

~ Not primarily on IB but containing discussion of his work or reference to him (tildes are certain to be missing from several items not yet examined in detail)

Thanks to the many people who have helped and are helping me to compile this list, including Joshua L. Cherniss, Shinichiro Hama, Antony Percy and Wang Qian